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❶In this section we are going to outline the various features of each protocol and the application of each protocol.

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Using this system, the machine could work faster than any other at the time on a problem that could be parceled out among the many processors. One of Britain's leading computer companies, Acorn continued the Archimedes line, which grew to nearly twenty different models, into the s. The computer he created, an all-black cube was an important innovation. This object-oriented multitasking operating system was groundbreaking in its ability to foster rapid development of software applications.

VTech, founded in Hong Kong, had been a manufacturer of Pong-like games and educational toys when they introduce the Laser computer. The RISC microprocessor had a bit integer arithmetic and logic unit the part of the CPU that performs operations such as addition and subtraction , a bit floating-point unit, and a clock rate of 33 MHz.

The chips remained similar in structure to their predecessors, the chips. What set the apart was its optimized instruction set, with an on-chip unified instruction and data cache and an optional on-chip floating-point unit.

Combined with an enhanced bus interface unit, the microprocessor doubled the performance of the without increasing the clock rate. Apple had initially included a handle in their Macintosh computers to encourage users to take their Macs on the go, though not until five years after the initial introduction does Apple introduce a true portable computer.

Sales were weaker than projected, despite being widely praised by the press for its active matrix display, removable trackball, and high performance. The line was discontinued less than two years later. It would serve as the model for several other significant multi-processor systems that would be among the fastest in the world. Based on Charles Babbage's second design for a mechanical calculating engine, a team at the Science Museum in London sets out to prove that the design would have worked as planned.

Apple's Macintosh Portable meets with little success in the marketplace and leads to a complete redesign of Apple's line of portable computers. All three PowerBooks introduced featured a built-in trackball, internal floppy drive, and palm rests, which would eventually become typical of s laptop design. The PowerBook was the entry-level machine, while the PowerBook was more powerful and had a larger memory. The PowerBook was the high-end model, featuring an active matrix display, faster processor, as well as a floating point unit.

The PowerBook line of computers was discontinued in Based on the Touchstone Delta computer Intel had built at Caltech, the Paragon is a parallel supercomputer that uses 2, later increased to more than four thousand Intel i processors.

More than one hundred Paragons were installed over the lifetime of the system, each costing as much as five million dollars.

The Paragon at Caltech was named the fastest supercomputer in the world in Paragon systems were used in many scientific areas, including atmospheric and oceanic flow studies, and energy research. Apple enters the handheld computer market with the Newton. The handwriting recognition software was much maligned for inaccuracy. The Newton line never performed as well as hoped and was discontinued in The Pentium introduced several advances that made programs run faster such as the ability to execute several instructions at the same time and support for graphics and music.

Using dual PowerPC CPUs, and featuring a large variety of peripheral ports, the first devices were used for software development. While it did not sell well, the operating system, Be OS, retained a loyal following even after Be stopped producing hardware in after less than 2, machines were produced. Officially known as the Track Write, the automatically expanding full-sized keyboard used by the ThinkPad is designed by inventor John Karidis.

The keyboard was comprised of three roughly triangular interlocking pieces, which formed a full-sized keyboard when the laptop was opened -- resulting in a keyboard significantly wider than the case. Sony had manufactured and sold computers in Japan, but the VAIO signals their entry into the global computer market. The first VAIO, a desktop computer, featured an additional 3D interface on top of the Windows 95 operating system as a way of attracting new users. The VAIO line of computers would be best known for laptops were designed with communications and audio-video capabilities at the forefront, including innovative designs that incorporated TV and radio tuners, web cameras, and handwriting recognition.

The line was discontinued in Until the year , it was the world's fastest supercomputer, able to achieve peak performance of 1. The machine was noted for its ease-of-use and included a 'manual' that contained only a few pictures and less than 20 words. The camera had a maximum resolution of 0. The J-Phone line would quickly expand, releasing a flip-phone version just a month later.

Cameras would become a significant part of most phones within a year, and several countries have even passed laws regulating their use. A consortium of aerospace, energy, and marine science agencies undertook the project, and the system was built by NEC around their SX-6 architecture. To protect it from earthquakes, the building housing it was built using a seismic isolation system that used rubber supports. The Earth Simulator was listed as the fastest supercomputer in the world from to After retiring their initial Visor series of PDAs, Handspring introduced the Treo line of smartphones, designed with built-in keyboards, cameras, and the Palm operating system.

The Treo sold well, and the line continued until Handspring was purchased by Palm in With a distinctive anodized aluminum case, and hailed as the first true bit personal computer, the Apple G5 is the most powerful Macintosh ever released to that point. While larger than the previous G4 towers, the G5 had comparatively limited space for expansion. Harkening back to the hobbyist era of personal computing in the s, Arduino begins as a project of the Interaction Design Institute, Ivrea, Italy.

Each credit card-sized Arduino board consisted of an inexpensive microcontroller and signal connectors which made Arduinos ideal for use in any application connecting to or monitoring the outside world. Nearly a quarter century after IBM launched their PC in , they had become merely another player in a crowded marketplace. Lenovo became the largest manufacturer of PCs in the world with the acquisition, later also acquiring IBM's server line of computers.

Named in honor of the space shuttle which broke-up on re-entry, the Columbia supercomputer is an important part of NASA's return to manned spaceflight after the disaster. Columbia was used in space vehicle analysis, including studying the Columbia disaster, but also in astrophysics, weather and ocean modeling.

At its introduction, it was listed as the second fastest supercomputer in the world and this single system increased NASA's supercomputing capacity fold. The first offering to the public required the buyer to purchase one to be given to a child in the developing world as a condition of acquiring a machine for themselves.

By , over 2. Many companies have attempted to release electronic reading systems dating back to the early s. Online retailer Amazon released the Kindle, one of the first to gain a large following among consumers. The first Kindle featured wireless access to content via Amazon. The first release proved so popular there was a long delay in delivering systems on release. Follow-on versions of the Kindle added further audio-video capabilities.

Apple launches the iPhone - a combination of web browser, music player and cell phone - which could download new functionality in the form of "apps" applications from the online Apple store. The touchscreen enabled smartphone also had built-in GPS navigation, high-definition camera, texting, calendar, voice dictation, and weather reports. Apple introduces their first ultra notebook — a light, thin laptop with high-capacity battery. The Air incorporated many of the technologies that had been associated with Apple's MacBook line of laptops, including integrated camera, and Wi-Fi capabilities.

To reduce its size, the traditional hard drive was replaced with a solid-state disk, the first mass-market computer to do so. The Roadrunner is the first computer to reach a sustained performance of 1 petaflop one thousand trillion floating point operations per second. It used two different microprocessors: It was used to model the decay of the US nuclear arsenal, analyze financial data, and render 3D medical images in real-time.

The Jaguar was used to study climate science, seismology, and astrophysics applications. It was the fastest computer in the world from November to June Since the release of the Macintosh in , Apple has placed emphasis on high-resolution graphics and display technologies.

With a screen resolution of up to pixels-per-inch PPI , Retina displays approached the limit of pixel visibility to the human eye.

The display also used In Plane Switching IPS technology, which allowed for a wider viewing angle and improved color accuracy. With a peak speed of over a petaflop one thousand trillion calculations per second , the Tianhe 1 translation: The machines were used by the Chinese Academy of Sciences to run massive solar energy simulations, as well as some of the most complex molecular studies ever undertaken. The iPad combines many of the popular capabilities of the iPhone, such as built-in high-definition camera, access to the iTunes Store, and audio-video capabilities, but with a nine-inch screen and without the phone.

Apps, games, and accessories helped spur the popularity of the iPad and led to its adoption in thousands of different applications from movie making, creating art, making music, inventory control and point-of-sale systems, to name but a few. Despite using 98, PowerPC chips, Sequoia's relatively low power usage made it unusually efficient.

Scientific and defense applications included studies of human electrophysiology, nuclear weapon simulation, human genome mapping, and global climate change. Conceived in the UK by the Raspberry Pi Foundation, this credit card-sized computer features ease of use and simplicity making it highly popular with students and hobbyists. In October , the one millionth Raspberry Pi was shipped.

Only one month later, another one million Raspberry Pis were delivered. The University of Michigan Micro Mote M3 is the smallest computer in the world at the time of its completion. Three types of the M3 were available — two types that measured either temperature or pressure and one that could take images. The motes were powered by a tiny battery and could gain light energy through a photocell, which was enough to feed the infinitesimally small amount of energy a mote consumes 1 picowatt.

An ecologist, for example, could sprinkle thousands of motes from the air onto a field and measure soil and air temperature, moisture, and sunlight, giving them accurate real-time data about the environment. Building a computer into the watch form factor has been attempted many times but the release of the Apple Watch leads to a new level of excitement.

Incorporating a version of Apple's iOS operating system, as well as sensors for environmental and health monitoring, the Apple Watch was designed to be incorporated into the Apple environment with compatibility with iPhones and Mac Books.

Almost a million units were ordered on the day of release. The Watch was received with great enthusiasm, but critics took issue with the somewhat limited battery life and high price. Timeline of Computer History. By Year By Category Search. Curt Herzstark designs Curta calculator Curta Model 1 calculator. Harvard Mark 1 is completed Harvard Mark 1 is completed. SSEC goes on display.

Plans to build the Simon 1 relay logic machine are published Simon featured on the November Scientific American cover. Minuteman I missile guidance computer developed Minuteman Guidance computer. The Atlas Computer debuts Chilton Atlas installation. Olivetti Programma is released Olivetti Programma Intel introduces the first microprocessor Advertisement for Intel's Wang Laboratories releases the Wang Wang Tandem Computers releases the Tandem Dual-processor Tandem 16 system. Intel and Zilog Z Zilgo Z microprocessor.

Steve Wozniak completes the Apple-1 Apple-I. Motorola introduces the microprocessor Die shot of Motorola Security Awareness programs strive to change behaviors of individuals, which in turn strengthens the security culture.

Awareness is a continual process. It is not a program to tell people to be afraid to check their e-mail. The discipline requires a distinct set of knowledge, skills, and abilities. As Oregon pointed out in their study in , everyone has a role in improving security.

The entire enterprise needs security awareness, since the weakest security link is usually an employee clicking on bad links.

But cybersecurity awareness needs to be a process with constant improvements and adaptation, as your technology and business changes. The main goal is to improve the security culture in pragmatic ways. End user awareness must have the full and vocal support of top executives and the middle managers in order to be successful.

When top executives lead by example and participate themselves, key messages are understood to be important by the masses.

Leading by example is key. The more relevant and timely, the better. Yes, remind staff of important security policies. Add competition or other learning techniques that are proven to be effective. Different people learn differently.

Relate cyber awareness to personal life, family and home. Our goal is to change culture and improve security. This can only happen if people make good decisions and act in ways that reduce risk each and every day. Also, many studies have shown that employees pay more attention if the awareness materials can be used and even shared outside the office - at home with family and friends.

Make sure that your awareness program is measured. How many users actually complete the training? What did they like?

Did they learn anything? Also, ask for new ideas and suggestions to improve. Provide mechanisms to get real-time data from staff. Not only do I disagree with those views , following that approach is frankly irresponsible. Computer forensics is used to conduct investigations into computer related incidents, whether the incident is an external intrusion into your system, internal fraud, or staff breaching your security policy.

In deciding which method to use, whether it is in-house, law enforcement or private sector computer forensic specialists, management needs to understand what is computer forensics, the rules of computer forensics, and the implications of mishandling evidence.

Computer Forensic Legal Standards and Equipment This paper addresses an issue of increasing importance to companies in this modern era. The topic of this document focuses on the CIRT aspect of security conscious commerce, but in a less familiar role: It describes methods of investigating Windows hosts and conducting an analysis in order to promote growth and learning as opposed to a "how-to" guide to gather legal evidence in view of criminal prosecution.

Computer Incident Response and Computer Forensics Overview This paper focuses on the incident response and computer forensics on the personal or desktop computers. The incident response and forensic procedures and techniques for servers may additional knowledge and tools. Network forensics analysis tools NFATs reveal insecurities, turn sysadmins into systems detectives. Adventures in Computer Forensics An insightful look at the life of a forensic analyst.

Collecting Electronic Evidence After a System Compromise Evidence is difficult to collect at the best of times, but when that evidence is electronic an investigator faces some extra complexities. Electronic evidence has none of the permanence that conventional evidence has, and is even more difficult to form into a coherent argument. The purpose of this paper is to point out these difficulties and what must be done to overcome them.

Computer Evidence Processing Steps An overview of the basic steps involved in conducting an investigative analysis of a compromised computer. Forensics on the Windows Platform, Part 1 This article, the first in a two-part series about forensics on the Windows platform, will examine the preparatory steps that can be taken by both investigators and system administrators alike.

While this series is concerned with Windows-specific investigations, this article will examine some basic, non-technical concepts that are applicable to all forensic investigations. Forensics on the Windows Platform, Part Two This is the second of a two-part series of articles discussing the use of computer forensics in the examination of Windows-based computers.

In Part One we discussed the wider legal issues raised by computer forensics and the benefits of pre-investigation preparation. In this article we will concentrate on the areas of a Windows file system that are likely to be of most interest to forensic investigators and the software tools that can be used to carry out an investigation.

Learning by Doing Do-it-yourselfer experiences the do's and don'ts of building a forensics workstation. Legal Aspects of Collecting and Preserving Computer Forensic Evidence Some of the most common reasons for improper evidence collection are poorly written policies, lack of an established incident response plan, lack of incident response training, and a broken chain of custody.

Bell Laboratories scientist George Stibitz uses relays for a demonstration adder

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Answer to Look up “the paper that started the study of computer security.” Prepare a summary of the key points. What in this. Summary of the key points: To develop techniques and obtain experience on interconnecting computers. To improve and increase computer research productivity through resource sharing. Any program or user on any of the networked computers can access any other program or subsystem connected in the network without changing the remote program%(13).

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Information Security - Chapter 1. STUDY. PLAY. computer security. considered as the paper that started the study of computer security. the scope of computer security expanded into: securing the data, limiting random and unauthorized access to that data, involving personnel from multiple levels of the organization in information security. • The Rand Report R was the document that started computer security. • The Rand Report contains valuable material on security controls for resource-sharing and computer systems. It discusses intrusions, physical security threats, policy considerations. It also makes recommendations, and is now used in technical literature.