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❶Consumers are the largest group of any economy and they affect and get affected by every public and private decisions.




Is it ethical, or does it lead to self-diagnosis and take advantage of people who have hope for a cure? Currently, New Zealand and the United States are the only two countries that allow this kind of direct-to-consumer advertising to take place, which calls into question why other countries do not allow the same, if the practice is ethical.

From a deontological point-of-view, using Kant's categorical imperative, this paper will address whether the direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceutical drugs is ethical or unethical. According to the deontological approach, one's duty is to do what is morally right and avoid what is morally wrong, regardless of what the consequences of those actions may be Beauchamp, ; Waller, Because that is the case, there are moral questions raised that have to be considered with something as…… [Read More].

Hipster Consumer Behavior Following the Publication of. The image of hipsters has changed in fundamental ways since that time, though, and marketers interested in this segment are therefore faced with some significant challenges in fine-tuning their marketing mixes to appeal to young adults who define themselves as hipsters or who are attracted to the image for other reasons.

This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning hipster consumer behavior, including a background, a description of the lifestyle branding theoretical foundation that can be used to formulate marketing initiatives, and the findings that emerged from the research.

Finally, a summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion. Background Although adults of any age may be regarded as "hipsters," this category is commonly regarded as…… [Read More]. Business Law During the Consumer Movement of.

Business Law During the consumer movement of the s and s, Congress enacted a substantial amount of legislation to protect "the good of the people. As a result of this situation, corporations are allowed to profit at the expense of consumers' health.

The resistance comes in a number of stages. The first is denial of the problem, wherein the corporations argue that there is not enough evidence to link their products with the negative outcomes that are being reported. Then there is the lobbying that causes politicians to defer action until a later date, or ignore the call to action altogether. Too often, when statutes are enacted, corporations fight them to the end, resulting in flawed legislation that either has loopholes, require interpretation from the judicial branch or is difficult…… [Read More].

Irish Consumer Behavior Investigation of. Retrieved February 14, from http: Retrieved February 13, from http: Opportunities and Challenges for UK Businesses.

Will pricelings save the west? China is soon expected to the world's biggest buyer of luxury goods. Creating consumer value in digital China. Retrieved February 13, from…… [Read More]. Luxury the Consumer Describe Briefly. Today's consumers act more en masse rather than as individuals, and so, marketing must show them why the "must" have the newest trendy items, or why they have to continue to need those items.

Consumers still have personal choices, but they tend to shop for what is "hot" right now and making an item or service hot is what marketing is becoming. Today, people value things not for what they do, but what they say about them as consumers, and how they show they have "taste" and "class. Consumers are bound by expense today, and it is no wonder quality is becoming a thing of the past - perhaps it will end up being the real "luxury" in our consumerist society.

The democratization of luxury. Popularity of Foreign Restaurant Consumer Attitude and. According to EIU ViewsWire , "Growth in the tourism industry in recent years was the result of the depreciation of the baht against non-Asian currencies which improved competitiveness relative to destinations outside the region , aggressive marketing campaigns and an increase in the number of airlines offering flights to Thailand.

Thailand benefited from its reputation as a safe and stable society and…… [Read More]. Theory Consumer Behavior the Success or Failure.

Theory Consumer Behavior The success or failure of an organization unreservedly depends upon the behavior of consumers towards its products or services Kotler, Consumers have now become more knowledgeable and conscious towards choosing and consuming products. They do not just buy a product; but make a relationship with that brand and the manufacturer of that product Oliver, This relationship reflects their consumption patterns and brand preference.

This is the fact which business organizations must recognize about consumer behavior Farley, To stumble upon this consumer behavior, organizations use different marketing and promotional strategies to stay competitive within their respective industries. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the behavior of consumers towards the products offered by one of the…… [Read More]. The ACL represents a unified codification of a variety of prior product liability laws. In fact, one of its main benefits is that the law is applicable throughout Australia.

Another major component of the law is that it imposes a strict liability standard on manufacturers and suppliers of goods, which was not a uniform standard prior to the introduction of this law. This is a relatively new law; the need for it was identified in after a Productivity Commission reviewed existing consumer protection laws and found glaring inconsistencies, which made it difficult, if not impossible, to enforce those laws that did exist.

Perhaps the greatest change to the law is that the ACL is now a strict liability law. Strict liability "means that a breach may be committed without negligence" The FindLaw Team, Emotional Drivers Swarovski The motives behind consumer decisions to purchase luxury brands like Swarovski have been studied in a number of researches. The general findings of these studies have been that these motives are largely emotional, and that they are evolving as the composition of the luxury market segment changes.

De Mooij defines emotion as an "interaction between cognition and physiology. The mode of expression of emotion also varies by culture. In capitalistic societies, consumption has evolved into a unique mode of expression of self-satisfaction, self-esteem and self-pleasures. These buying motives shape the perceptions of various brands among consumers, along with brand loyalty and brand image. De Mooij , p. Protection of Personal Rights For Instance in. For instance, in the case of the U.

Supreme Court on Griswold V. Connecticut, married couples should have the rights to privacy when it comes to birth control. Personal information about what diseases, medical health, salaries, how many times an individual has been married, how many divorces, and other personal rights should be protected by the Fourth and Fifth Amendments.

Should the state laws have the ability to give personal information to others? Should companies or individuals have the right to get personal information about a person off the computers? In Connecticut, it is a crime for a person to use…… [Read More]. Family and Consumer Sciences the. They are also the guidelines by which a member determines the correctitude of conduct in relationships with the clients, colleagues, members of allied professions and with various populaces. A member of the family and consumer sciences profession and of AAFCS is required by the code of ethics to maintain the highest responsible standard of professional performance.

At all times, a member should uphold confidentiality and act with intelligence, dedication, and ebullience. A member is required to fulfill the obligation in order to continually advance and extend personal professional qualification. Sharing the professional competence with colleagues and clients is also a requirement meant to enlarge and carry on development of the profession. The code of ethics requires members to support the objectives of the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences.

Members should also take part in its development through informed, active participation in its programs. Extending public cognizance and understanding…… [Read More]. Marketing Ethics Consumers on the. Are they eb savvy? Are they frequent fliers? Once you develop that kind of intimate understanding of your shoppers, you can truly begin to cultivate their loyalties" Pedersen On one hand, this may make consumers uncomfortable -- but it may also mean that when a supermarket chain discovers that the majority of its customers have young children, the chain may include a new line of baby care supplies or discounted coupons on diapers bought in bulk.

If a credit card company discovers that the majority of its users are not frequent fliers, it may create a new rewards points program that offers different promotional strategies than mere upgrades to first class. Take for example a promotional strategy whereby Coca-Cola "joined forces with Random House to offer sample chapters of unpublished novels in cases of Diet Coke. The idea was hatched…… [Read More].

Identify which method you will select or state whether you will use a mixed methodology and explain the reasons for your choice. DA Qs 1 Answer The marketing guru Philip Kotler perceives branding as a "name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers.

Michael Dunn, President and CEO, of Prophet, a strategic professional services firm in San Francisco, states that branding is just a defensive tool against market competition; but acts as "insulation against deteriorating economic conditions. Marketing Involvement Consumer Involvement Refers to the.

Marketing Involvement Consumer involvement refers to the amount of time, though and energy that a consumer puts into a particular purchase decision McNamara, So many small purchases like impulse purchases are low involvement. At the very low involvement end of the scale is something like fries with your burger -- you might not even want them, and accept the suggestion for them almost reflexively. At the high involvement end of the scale would be something like the military bidding process, or for consumers buying a house or car.

A medium-involvement purchase involves at least some thought. An example might be new headphones -- it's not an impulse purchase but unless you're ad audiophile there is only so much energy you will put into that purchase.

For marketers, the optimal situation for a low involvement purchase is to reduce the search for…… [Read More]. The third attempt in reducing the cost of healthcare service revolves around coordination of health services by the use of family doctors. This would enable patients to avoid the risk of double prescription of drugs.

Patients should focus on directives from one doctor in the process of seeking medical attention. This would reduce the cost of obtaining healthcare services by the patients thus lowering down the total cost within the health sector. Invention of home-based doctors could help bring down the cost of healthcare Wong, The other approach revolves around minimization of infections in the process of treating patients.

Patients suffer from infections due to ineffective health measures within the hospitals and other health organizations. These infections incur extra cost on patients who seek further treatment to solve the problems. Effective and efficient preventive measures during treatment should enable doctors and nurses to minimize chances of infections. This would…… [Read More]. Autonomy Rights and Medical Information.

This step would also require an assessment of the various "what-if" outcomes that might result from sharing the genetic information with the mother only, both the mother and the father, or neither of them. Step Four Based on the foregoing considerations, the physician would appear to have an ethical responsibility to share his discovery with the mother, but the decision to share this information with the father should be at the discretion of the mother.

This step would require a careful assessment of Hispanic culture's views on these issues and what eventualities might interfere with the decision. The research showed that patient autonomy is a particularly important area where the outcomes of ethical decisions can have life-or-death implications.

The amount of medical information that…… [Read More]. Invest in the Global Consumer Deals With. Invest in the global consumer" deals with the subject of expanding market for international goods and how companies must understand the new dynamics of the increased purchasing power of consumers from China and India. This article was published in the Forbes in July, The article is exceptional in its research considering how little sophisticated research could be done for a business magazine.

The author has cited examples from financial news and also given current statistics to support his argument that the new global consumer is more interested in hi-tech products than anything else and the reason one must invest in hi-tech products in the U. The idea of a global consumer is interesting but not very new. We have been learning about the new consumer since the growth of the Internet and the ever-increasing influence of globalization.

Finance Consumer Credit There Were. It was also very interesting to note that many large suppliers may actually step in to help their troubled client. Again, this makes sense, especially if the client is a long-term business partner doing a major amount of business with the company.

Saving a company actually makes sound financial sense in these cases, and uniting with a group of company creditors is also a good idea. It seems that for the most part, when a company runs into financial difficulties, if they are a viable and respectable company, there are resources available to help them regain their footing and continue business.

This shows how important it is to always have excellent relationships with customers, no matter what business you engage in. Psychology of Consumer Behavior The research into how young women perceive their own bodies -- in response to constant exposure to media images of un-naturally thin and extraordinarily beautiful females -- has been a popular topic for many years.

But when it comes to male models that are nearly perfect, handsome and muscular in exactly the right places, there has not been as much attention or research. This paper reviews the potential of -- and reality of -- dissatisfaction in males based on the media's model images of males. In fact, hospitals and nursing homes have the option of advising their patients of their right to either accept or refuse medical treatment and their right to formulate advance directives regarding their care should they become incompetent based internally generated mandates.

However, based on the fact that our population is aging and that there are growing trends of the population having high levels of uninsured and underinsured individuals, the healthcare system will continue to be hit hard in the future.

One way to combat the potential problems of the future is to create more universal do-not-resuscitate and "ight to Die" policies, procedures and laws. From a nursing perspective, one should be in favor of the concept of patient rights especially when do-not-resuscitate and "ight…… [Read More].

Intellectual ights and the Business Cycle Intellectual rights are something that almost every business today has to deal with in some form or other. While the concept is a relatively new one, it has, nonetheless, become a concept that no business today can afford to ignore. Intellectual rights can affect every part of the business cycle, and a company that ignores this issue does so at its own peril. Businesses can be forced out of business or find themselves in complicated legal trouble over intellectual rights if they abuse the intellectual rights of others.

Businesses can also find themselves mired down in lengthy court battles and in financial peril if they ignore their own intellectual rights. This paper examines the issue of intellectual rights as they apply to all aspects of the business cycle. What are intellectual…… [Read More]. Women and Gender International Human Rights.

Women and Gender Women are the most assaulted segment of the human society. A shocking statistic reveals that a majority of the females are subjected to violence and sexual violence by the time they reach their late teens Fergus, Definitions of Violence against women, constitutes the mental and physical torture they are subjected to by way of restricting their right to freedom in the broader sense of the term.

The crimes and exploitation against younger girls implies, by definition, violence based on gender discrimination. It has been observed that this act of violence is fallout of the negligence shown towards equality of the female child and womenfolk in general Fergus, The act of violence exposes the women and specifically the younger female child to isolation, loss of identity, unhealthy overall development, psychological and social stigma WHO, and hence…… [Read More].

American Civil Rights History Has. Funding from the CDC allowed for a partnership between the D. Efforts to address the epidemic in D.

Vindication of the Rights of. In this way, religion was used in an attempt not only to make the proletariat content with their lives of alienation, exploitation and poverty, but also as a way to actually encourage them to want less and to enjoy their low stations in life as a sign of their future happiness in the religious afterlife.

Regardless of Marx's beliefs concerning the Christian faith, or any other religious belief system, his critique of religion was aimed not at religious institutions per se, but at their implementation of religion as a means of subjugation. It is for this reason that Marx believes the emancipation of humanity will necessarily involve an emancipation from religion.

Because religious teachings, as Marx sees them, reinforce the ideals that create and maintain the inequalities of the capitalist system, such teachings must be done away with if the proletariat are to be able to make fully informed and…… [Read More]. Homeless Rights Assembly Member Mike.

When researchers examined the hospitalization rates of homeless persons in Honolulu, Hawaii, they found that hospitalizations in acute-care hospitals occurred at a rate 5.

Theodore Levitt the World and Consumers in. Theodore Levitt, the world and consumers in particular are moving towards having similar likes, preferences, and tastes and these have caused people to prefer the same products the world over.

These products that are given preference are those that are liked by everyone else. This statement is true in the world that we currently see, and this should be the focus of all marketing campaigns whether they are aimed at building brand awareness, changing the attitudes of consumers, or just trying to increase sales of a product.

By simply creating a product that will become the preference of many, it is remarkably easy to capture and penetrate the market and thus boost sales by a large margin.

Levitt also argues that "different cultural preferences, national tastes and standards, and business institutions are the…… [Read More]. Financial Terms Using Consumer Mathematics.

Therefore, the yearly compounded rate is higher, actually, than the disclosed rate. In Canada, mortgages use semi-annual compounded rates, while payments are still monthly. Mortgages in the U. Buying a home, we found, is a lot like buying smaller things, as we have been doing, on credit, with credit cards, which is called "installment buying. If the buyer defaults, the goods revert to the seller and…… [Read More]. Note the communications medium in which each behavior occurs.

Explain how each medium enables e-commerce. There are three types of e-tailing behavior: The independent retailer will want to know two variables of the people who generally resort to e-commerce.

The retailer will want to know the buying habits of the consumers in order to target a given market. These demographics include age, gender, marital status, occupation and income. The retailer, too, will want to know the environmental variables, namely background variables of what or who influence the consumer; where the consumer shops; what the consumer would like to buy and so forth. This is so in order that the retailer would know…… [Read More].

Online consumer reviews are often the first way that a consumer will learn about a new product or service. The pros of online consumer reviews include receiving potentially unbiased information about a product or service. The cons of online consumer reviews include their increasing lack of credibility as more companies are resorting to tactics like paying bloggers for positive product reviews, paying writers to write positive Amazon reviews, and the inability to genuinely decipher the difference between a trustworthy and untrustworthy review.

Paid or compensated reviewers are becoming increasingly savvy in their presentation of material. By inserting a few objective or even critical comments amid a sea of positive information about the brand or specific product, the paid reviewer engenders trust and therefore creates an illusion of credibility.

The ill informed consumer might be prone to trusting the paid reviewer because of the…… [Read More]. Works Cited Federal Trade Commission About the Federal Trade Commission. Perspectives on data mining. International Journal of Market Research, 52 1 , Hybrid models using unsupervised clustering for prediction of customer churn. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 19 2 , Mining consumer dialog in online forums.

Internet Research, 22 3 , Why detailed data is as important as big data. References Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights. Marshall Journal Computer and Information, 22, 79 -- Journal of Public Policy, 19 1 , 7 -- Why we'll Never Escape Facebook. Canadian Business, 83 10 , The Liberal Value of Privacy. The right to privacy: The International Journal of Human Rights.

New Directions in Economic Justice. University of Notre Dame Press, Milk does a body good, but ads do the industry even better. Retrieved October 14, , from www. Wooing the TiVo generation. Retrieved October 15, , at http: Reference List The globalist, January 05, , - Subway's healthy food, web site: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation website.

Retrieved April 30, from http: Why Bank Credit Policies Fluctuate: A Theory and Some Evidence. A Guide for Small Business Owners. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Do consumer concerns threaten fast fashion? A European Perspective, Chichester: Margareta van den Bosch. Cheap Fashion, Fast Fashion. Research consumers in virtual worlds: Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 1 3 , Marketing research in the new millennium: Emerging issues and trends.

Works Cited Michman, R. Early Childhood Intervention Services. Managing a Living Demand System. Harvard Business Review -- The Magazine. Consumer Behavior and puffed rice View Full Essay. Works Cited Smith, L. Specifics of Austrian market. A comparative study of British and Romanian firm.

To successful launch an e-commerce Web site, the question is not just about if we build it, will they come? It means attracting a large number of shoppers to the site is not the only ultimate measure of success. The true measure of success should be included retaining customers and converting them into repeat buyers.

Positive shopping experiences on the site can help online buyers make an effective decision. It means positive feeling is the optimal experience that consumers will desire to repeat buying online. Therefore, marketers need to create effective Web sites for winning consumer satisfaction. Since Web sites are often the main contact with consumer in the Internet market, a company's Web site elements may include some persuasive components that has imp!

The Case of Samba Financial Group. Global benchmarking for internet and e-commerce applications, Benchmarking: Works Cited Colabrese, Inez. Broadcast Basler, Barbara "U. Steps Back on Drug Seizures.

The Heartland Institute Special Report. Canadian internet pharmacies have strict standards, U. Website Accessed February 13, References Michel Aldanondo, Elise Vareilles. Industrial Management, 49 6 , ,5. Benchmarking supply chain management practice in New Zealand.

Supply Chain Management, 8 1 , References Inigo Igartua Arregui. Law and Policy in International Business. Georgetown University Law Center. Dianne Brinson, Mark F. Intellectual Property Rights in the Global Economy. American Bar Association Publication.

Retrieved from The White House website: The Future of Privacy and Regulation. Retrieved January 21, , from http: Advances in culture and psychology: Consumer behavior and culture: Consequences for global marketing and advertising.

An Introduction to Moral Philosophy, 2nd Ed. Rights, Duties, and Status. Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Harper and Row Publishers, Inc. Religion, media, and the marketplace. How to create a positive work environment that empowers and retains nurses. In the late s, a down-at-heel 'hood in New York's Lower East Side became an enclave for rich white kids.

New Statesman, , Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. What's making us fat? Researchers put food additives on suspect list. Rising obesity will cost U. Retrieved April 11, from http: Russians are the target of Irish home drive. The process of using various goods and services to satisfy a want is known as consumption. When we pay a price for good or a service and use it for to satisfy a want, we become consumers.

With advertisement in production, consumption becomes more difficult. There is growth in the number and services. Outside pressures become increasingly refined and harder to resist.

It is necessary that the present generation keep themselves well aware and active to be able to take the ultimate decision in the market. If this is not so then the consumer is often exploited or cheated by the seller or the producer. So it is important to be aware of how we can be cheated as consumers. We must know our rights and duties as consumers. Even the law provides us protection as consumers.

There are many ways by which consumers can be exploited. They may be exploited by giving incomplete or wrong information. They may be exploited by sellers who may weigh less or measure wrongly.

Sometimes a consumer may be given low quality if good. One of the very common and a serious problem by which a consumer may be exploited and cheated by the shop-keeper is by providing impurity or adulteration with harmful substances.

Consumer not only pays more they also suffer bad health and may even risk their like. Sometimes consumers are exploited when they purchase medicines and electronic devices. Inadequate safety measures adopted in making such devices may harm consumers physically.

An electric heater may give a shock or a generator may give a high voltage harming the electric wiring or bulbs and tube-lights in the house. To be able to charge a high price a supplier may store the commodity hoarding and create an artificial scarcity. The consumer may panic and be forced to pay a high price for the same.

Sometimes, some articles are copied and sold in its original brand name such as creams, soaps etc. The quantities of these duplicate materials are much inferior. The consumers then feel trapped and helpless. This harasses and displeases the consumer.


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Many consumers know their basic rights, but often the rights they do not know about are the ones that businesses deny. Therefore, the fact that consumers need educate themselves is essential if they are to prevent any further mistreatment/5(11).

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Consumer awareness through consumer movements, is an effort to change this situation and to safegaurd the interests of the consumers. Logos and certification such as the ISI or Agmark logos help consumers get an assurance .

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Essay about The Australian Consumer Law and Consumer Guarantees - The Australian Consumer Law (ACL) was established to protect consumers in any legal trading activities in Australia. A set of guarantees has also been introduced for those consumers who are acquiring goods and services from Australian suppliers, importers or manufacturers. Consumer Rights CONSUMER RIGHTS WHO IS A CONSUMER 1. A person who has indicated his or her willingness to obtain goods and/or services from a supplier with the intention of paying for them. 2. Someone who has purchased goods and/or services for personal consumption 3.

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It is only recently that it has been recognized that the consumer has his own rights which need to be protected. These rights are (i) the right of safety and the right to be protected against the marketing of goods which are health hazards or pose a danger to life itself. Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Consumer Rights.