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❶The Imperial system of units was developed and used in the United Kingdom beginning in , and subsequently used in the rest of the Commonwealth. The impetus for accepting adjudication in a customary legal system as well as in an authoritarian system is the omnipresent threat of force, but use of such force is certainly not likely to be the norm.

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The slug is another unit of mass derived from pound-force. Troy weight, avoirdupois weight, and apothecaries' weight are all built from the same basic unit, the grain, which is the same in all three systems.

However, while each system has some overlap in the names of their units of measure all have ounces and pounds , the relationship between the grain and these other units within each system varies.

For example, in apothecary and troy weight, the pound and ounce are the same, but are different from the pound and ounce in avoirdupois in terms of their relationships to grains and to each other. The systems also have different units between the grain and ounce apothecaries' has scruple and dram , troy has pennyweight , and avoirdupois has just dram, sometimes spelled drachm.

The dram in avoirdupois weighs just under half of the dram in apothecaries'. The fluid dram unit of volume is based on the weight of 1 dram of water in the apothecaries' system. To alleviate confusion, it is typical when publishing non-avoirdupois weights to mention the name of the system along with the unit. Precious metals, for example, are often weighed in "troy ounces", because just "ounce" would be more likely to be assumed to mean an avoirdupois ounce.

For the pound and smaller units, the U. However, they differ when dealing with units larger than the pound. The definition of the pound avoirdupois in the imperial system is identical to that in the U. The grain is used to describe the mass of propellant and projectiles in small arms ammunition. It was also used to measure medicine and other very small masses.

In agricultural practice, a bushel is a fixed volume of The mass of grain will therefore vary according to density. Some nominal weight examples are: In trade terms a bushel is a term used to refer to these nominal weights, although even this varies. The most common practical cooking measures for both liquid and dry ingredients in the U. Pounds, ounces, fluid ounces, and common sizes are also used, such as can presumed size varies depending on product , jar, square e.

Degrees Fahrenheit are used in the U. The Rankine scale of absolute temperature also saw some use in thermodynamics. Scientists worldwide use the kelvin and degree Celsius. The relationship between the different temperature scales is linear but the scales have different zero points, so conversion is not simply multiplication by a factor.

The conversion formula is:. The United States Code refers to these units as "traditional systems of weights and measures". Other common ways of referring to the system in the U. Tools and fasteners with sizes measured in inches are sometimes called "SAE bolts" or "SAE wrenches" to differentiate them from their metric counterparts.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Imperial and US customary measurement systems and Comparison of the imperial and US customary measurement systems. Pound force and Pound mass. Cooking weights and measures. Acre-foot Board foot Conversion of units Cord unit Fahrenheit vs. Mendenhall , Superintendent of Standard Weights and Measures. Doc , " Refinement of Values for the Yard and the Pound.

The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed. Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science. Retrieved August 28, Australian Radio National , Ockham's Razor. Federal Register republished in Barbrow, L. National Bureau of Standards Special Publication Retrieved May 16, Federal Register Archived at the Wayback Machine..

Republished in Barbrow, L. E and Judson, L. Weights and Measures of the United States: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Code of Federal Regulations.

US Government Printing Office. Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. Check date values in: But collective action can be achieved through individual agreements, with useful rules spreading to other members of a group. Demsetz explained that property rights will be defined when the benefits of doing so cover the costs of defining and enforcing such rights. Such benefits may become evident because a dispute arises, implying that existing rules do not adequately cover some new situation.

The parties involved must expect the benefits from resolving the dispute e. Dispute resolution can be a major source of legal change since an adjudicator will often make more precise those rules about which differences of opinion exist, and even supply new rules because no generally recognized rules cover a new situation. If the relevant group accepts the ruling it becomes part of customary law, but not because it is coercively imposed on a group by some authority backing the court.

Thus, good rules that facilitate interaction tend to be selected over time, while bad decisions are ignored. Dispute resolution is not the only source of legal evolution under customary law. Individuals may observe others behaving in a particular way in a new situation and adopt similar behavior themselves, recognizing the benefit of avoiding confrontation. Institutions for enforcement similarly evolve due to recognition of reciprocal benefits. Consider the development of dispute resolution procedures.

No state- like coercive authority exists in a customary system to force disputants into a court. Because rules of customary law are in the nature of torts, the aggrieved party must pursue prosecution.

Under such circumstances, individuals have strong reciprocal incentives to form mutual support groups for legal matters.

The makeup of such groups may reflect family as it frequently did in primitive societies , religion as in some primitive groups , geographic proximity as in Anglo-Saxon England , functional similarity as with commercial law , or contractual arrangements e.

The group members are obligated to aid any other member in a valid dispute, given that the member has fulfilled his obligations in the past. Thus, ability to obtain support in a dispute depends on reciprocal loyalty. Should a dispute arise, reciprocal support groups give individuals a position of strength. This does not necessarily mean, however, that disputes are settled by warfare between groups. Violence is a costly means of solving a dispute: Consequently, arrangements and procedures for non-violent dispute resolution should evolve very quickly in customary law systems.

The impetus for accepting adjudication in a customary legal system as well as in an authoritarian system is the omnipresent threat of force, but use of such force is certainly not likely to be the norm. Rather, an agreement between the parties must be negotiated. Frequently, a mutually acceptable arbitrator or mediator is chosen to consider the dispute, but this individual or group will have no vested authority to impose a solution on disputants. The ruling, therefore, must be acceptable to the groups to which both parties in the dispute belong.

The only real power an arbitrator or mediator holds under such a system is that of persuasion. Liability, intent, the value of the damages, and the status of the offended person all may be considered in determining the indemnity.

Every invasion of person or property is generally valued in terms of property. A judgment under customary law is typically enforceable because of an effective threat of total ostracism by the community e. Carl Menger proposed that the origin, formation, and ultimate process of all social institutions including law is essentially the same as the spontaneous order Adam Smith described for markets.

Markets coordinate interactions, as does customary law.


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United States customary units are a system of measurements commonly used in the United States. The United States customary system (USCS or USC) developed from English units which were in use in the British Empire before the U.S. became an independent country.

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The imperial and US customary systems of measurement are two closely inter-related systems of measurement both derived from earlier English system of measurement units which can be traced back to Ancient Roman units of measurement, and Carolingian and Saxon units of measure.

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Start studying Customary System of Measurement-Length, Weight, and Capacity. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Us customary system definition at directlenders.ml, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!

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unit of capacity in the British Imperial and U.S. Customary systems of measurement. In the British system the units for dry measure and liquid measure are identical; the single British pint is equal to cubic inches ( cubic cm) or one-eighth gallon. The bushel (bu) is a measurement of dry volume in the US Customary System. Two systems of weights and measures are derived from English Units: the US Customary System and the British Imperial System.