We do know that a number of psychiatric illnesses have different rates of presentation. Just why should this be? A number of authors point to various features of gender difference that may account for this difference. Castle et al spend a large proportion of their book differentiating the male and female brain in terms of the effect of testosterone on neurodevelopment. While this is undeniably a source of difference, it would appear that their argument rather falls apart when other authors point to the fact that the differences that we are considering here are actually better correlated with both gender and culture than actual biological sex.
Gender has much deeper socio-economic and cultural implications than simply a sexual consideration. It is gender that is one of the prime determinants of the differential power and status factors that influence the degree of control that both men and women have over their socio-economic situation and social position in their own cultural hierarchy.
This, in turn, determines both their susceptibility, and indeed their exposure, to significant mental health risks. We have already alluded, in passing, to the differential incidence of various illnesses. We know that depression and anxiety related patterns of illness, together with those that have a significant element of somatosisation of their symptomatology, are more likely to occur in women than men with a ratio of about 3: Illnesses such as reactive unipolar depression is found to occur with double the frequency in women, when compared to men.
This particular disease process is statistically the most common mental health problem that affects women, but it also tends to be more persistent in women both in terms of longevity of the episode and in frequency of relapse. Gender differences are also apparent when it comes to a consideration of substance abuse, however it is usual to find the reverse ratio in most studies on the subject.
Alcohol abuse and dependence will occur 2. It is not certain whether these changes are primarily cultural or biological, as they do vary to a degree between different cultures, but the sex difference is generally found.
Unlike the unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, like schizophrenia, has no differential rate of presentation although there are defined differences in the disease trajectory in terms of age at presentation, the frequency and nature of the first rank psychotic symptoms. This may have a bearing on the longer term sequelae such as social readjustment and long term disease process outcome. Kaplan HI et al It is also a demonstrable fact that the degree of morbidity rises exponentially with multiple degrees of comorbidity.
In studies on the subject, women outnumber men in this area as well. We have already suggested that many factors are not purely biological, and a number of different papers point to the fact that many of the triggers and stressor factors which can be associated with mental illness, are also gender specific.
The gender based role in a particular society certainly in the UK , will produce different exposure to different stressors and negative life experiences. Equally it will give different exposure to the protective effect of a positive life experience. We can cite specific examples in this regard.
Women are frequently the domestic target of male-based violence. This factor is probably important in the fact that women have the highest incidence of post traumatic stress disorder PTSD. There is still a gender gap in the earnings tables, both in total lifetime earnings and also in average earning levels. This implies that women tend to be less financially independent and more socio-economically deprived on average that males.
In many societies this is also translated into lower social status that the male and this is often also associated with fewer social freedoms - all of which may be associated with an increasing psychological co-morbidity.
Gordon G et al There is also the consideration that in the majority of cultures, it is the woman who typically bears the major impact of care in the family, not only of the children, but also of the elderly relatives, and this frequently produces constant and unremitting levels of stress, which again, is recognised as a major trigger for psychological morbidity.
All of these factors, when considered collectively, appear to exert a significant influence on the overall patterns of gender specific distribution of psychiatric morbidity in the community at large. These factors are generally exacerbated and the gender differences accentuated , when there are sudden and unpredicted fluctuations in the general income level or the stability of the social strata.
We have already alluded to the fact that the rates of diagnosis by the healthcare professionals tend to underestimate the true incidence of psychiatric morbidity in the community.
It is likely that the healthcare professional can also skew the results in a different way. We know, from a number of studies, that gender bias occurs in both the diagnosis and treatment of mental conditions.
Doctors have been shown to be more likely to make a diagnosis of depression in women than in men even when the cohorts have been previously matched in terms of symptom severity and when the present with matched symptoms. Doctors are also statistically more likely to prescribe psychotropic medication for women than for men.
Bhui K et al ,. Why should this be? Dan wishes he could control these thoughts and stop them from happening. In order to feel safe driving again, he believes that he must sit on the ground and say a prayer out loud in front of each car door before he enters the car to drive.
Simon is extremely upset about the death of his brother 2 days ago. He has not been able to sleep or to eat, and he was barely able to take a shower and dress for the funeral.
Since he found out about the death, he has spent most of his time crying and talking to relatives about his brother. Summarize and discuss the major changes that have occurred since the s in the treatment of people with mental disorders. What are the strengths and weaknesses of structured and unstructured interviews?
How do humanistic theories and therapies differ from existential ones? What symptoms is the person experiencing? How does the individual feel? How do society, friends, and family treat the individual?
Skip to content support superbessaywriters. Psychological Disorder Research For this assignment you will have the opportunity to learn more about a psychological disorder that is not covered in this course. You will pick a disorder from the list given to you and you will conduct research to investigate the following topics: One thing to keep in mind is that when using a Culture Bound Syndrome, finding the diagnostic criteria may be difficult.
Please cite where you found your criteria. You can talk about any controversies that have existed surrounding this disorder in this section. Please cite your information. Epidemiology points Please provide epidemiological statistics prevalence, incidence, lifetime prevalence for your disorder.
You need to provide a overall prevalence data, b gender difference data, and c data on at least 2 subgroups of your choice e.
- Psychological disorders are also known as mental disorders where there are multiple trends of behavioral or psychological symptoms that could be seen that might have an impact in an individual’s life.
Analyzing Psychological Disorders Essay Words | 10 Pages. understanding of the causes and treatment(s) of schizophrenia and I will discuss the following: areas of the brain affected, causal factors, associated symptoms, the neural basis, appropriate drug therapies.
You Have Not Saved Any Essays. With as many problems as there are in today's society, psychological disorders are very common. Since any behavior that is considered abnormal and disturbing can be described as a psychological disorder, there are various types of disorders. Along with these disorders /5(10). Psychological disorders damage the quality of life in varying degrees. The study of psychological disorders can be tricky. Because disorders are based, primarily, on normality, some experts will agree or disagree on a disorder based on their perception of normal.
Psychological Disorders and Treatment Essay. Saunders PS Psychological Disorders and Treatment Prof: Marjorie Vandemark Kaplan University Everyone has a personality with character traits, but when these traits are rigid and self-defeating, they may interfere with functioning and even lead to . Psychological Disorders Analysis UOPX PSY/ February 2, Instructor: Renee Green The world of abnormal psychology is filled with many different types of disorders, symptoms, and treatment options. Today, I will be working with Roger, a middle-aged accountant living in San Francisco, California who experienced a car wreck a few months ago.