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From 'Obama's jews' to a 'European hot dog stand for a modern Ukraine' - inside Paul Manafort's conspiracy James Titus, project manager for sea level rise at the U. Environmental Protection Agency , identifies the following criteria that policy makers should use in assessing responses to global warming: Adaptation can either occur in anticipation of change anticipatory adaptation , or be a response to those changes reactive adaptation.
Some adaptation measures, however, are anticipating future climate change, such as the construction of the Confederation Bridge in Canada at a higher elevation to take into account the effect of future sea-level rise on ship clearance under the bridge. Much adaptation takes place in relation to short-term climate variability, however this may cause maladaptation to longer-term climatic trends. For example, the expansion of irrigation in Egypt into the Western Sinai desert due to a period of higher river flows is a maladaptation when viewed in relation to the longer term projections of drying in the region .
Adaptations at one scale can also create externalities at another by reducing the adaptive capacity of other actors. This is often the case when broad assessments of the costs and benefits of adaptation are examined at smaller scales and it is possible to see that whilst the adaptation may benefit some actors, it has a negative effect on others. People have always adapted to climatic changes and some community coping strategies already exist, for example changing sowing times or adopting new water-saving techniques.
Strengthening these local techniques and building upon them also makes it more likely that adaptation strategies will be adopted, as it creates more community ownership and involvement in the process.
Cities, states, and provinces often have considerable responsibility in land use planning, public health, and disaster management. Some have begun to take steps to adapt to threats intensified by climate change, such as flooding, bushfires, heatwaves, and rising sea levels. Dealing with more frequent drenching rains may required increasing the capacity of stormwater systems, and separating stormwater from blackwater , so that overflows in peak periods do not contaminate rivers.
Its efforts include not only making buildings less prone flooding, but taking steps to reduce the future recurrence of specific problems encountered during and after the storm: Adaptation can be defined as adjustments of a system to reduce vulnerability and to increase the resilience of a system to change,  also known as adaptive capacity.
Those societies that can respond to change quickly and successfully have a high adaptive capacity. For example, the adaptive capacity in Western Europe is high, and the risks of warmer winters increasing the range of livestock diseases was well documented, but many parts of Europe were still badly affected by outbreaks of the Bluetongue virus in livestock in Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system human, natural or managed to adjust to climate change including climate variability and extremes to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with consequences.
It has been found that enhanced adaptive capacity would reduce vulnerability to climate change. Others have suggested that certain forms of gender inequity should be addressed at the same time;  for example women may have participation in decision-making, or be constrained by lower levels of education. Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute found that development interventions to increase adaptive capacity have tended not to result in increased agency for local people.
Asset holdings and the ability to convert these resources through institutional and market processes are central to agency. A significant effect of global climate change is the altering of global rainfall patterns, with certain effects on agriculture. Many of the million poor people in the world live in parts of Asia and Africa that depend on rainfall to cultivate food crops. Climate change will modify rainfall , evaporation , runoff , and soil moisture storage.
Extended drought can cause the failure of small and marginal farms with resultant economic, political and social disruption, more so than this currently occurs. Agriculture of any kind is strongly influenced by the availability of water. Changes in total seasonal precipitation or in its pattern of variability are both important.
The occurrence of moisture stress during flowering , pollination , and grain-filling is harmful to most crops and particularly so to corn , soybeans , and wheat. Increased evaporation from the soil and accelerated transpiration in the plants themselves will cause moisture stress. The demand for water for irrigation is projected to rise in a warmer climate, bringing increased competition between agriculture—already the largest consumer of water resources in semi-arid regions —and urban as well as industrial users.
Falling water tables and the resulting increase in the energy needed to pump water will make the practice of irrigation more expensive, particularly when with drier conditions more water will be required per acre. Other strategies will be needed to make the most efficient use of water resources. For example, the International Water Management Institute has suggested five strategies that could help Asia feed its growing population in light of climate change. Russian and American scientists have in the past tried to control the weather, for example by seeding clouds with chemicals to try to produce rain when and where it is needed.
A new method being developed involves replicating the urban heat island effect, where cities are slightly hotter than the countryside because they are darker and absorb more heat. Glacial lake outburst floods may become a bigger concern due to the retreat of glaciers, leaving behind numerous lakes that are impounded by often weak terminal moraine dams.
In the past, the sudden failure of these dams has resulted in localized property damage, injury and deaths. Glacial lakes in danger of bursting can have their moraines replaced with concrete dams which may also provide hydroelectric power. IPCC concluded that geoengineering options, such as ocean fertilization to remove CO 2 from the atmosphere , remained largely unproven.
The Royal Society published the findings of a study into geoengineering. The authors of the study defined geoengineering as a "deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system, in order to moderate global warming".
Scientists such as Ken Caldeira and Paul Crutzen  suggest techniques such as:. Migration frequently requires would-be migrants to have access to social and financial capital, such as support networks in the chosen destination, and the funds or physical resources to be able to move. It is frequently the last adaptive response households will take when confronted with environmental factors that threaten their livelihoods, and mostly resorted to when other mechanisms to cope have proven unsuccessful.
The rhetoric of migration being related to climate change is complex and disputed. However, It is widely accepted that the results of migration events are multi-causal, with the environment being just a factor amongst many.
Outside of policy, human rights organizations, expert demographers and environmental climate scientists dominate this debate. Many discussions are based on projections and less with current migration data.
Some choose to label it "climate change", which reflects a more long term onset of change, and the human impact element. It is helpful to provide an intersectional approach to this discussion and understand that focusing on climate change as the issue frames the debate in terms of projections, causing the research to be speculative. Migration as tool for climate change adaptation is projected to be a more pressing issue in the decade to come.
Migration events are often seen as a failure of the governments or policy making bodies that could not contain or effectively manage environmental changes. These adaptation failures that have been the topic of concern for many scholars researching this area.
The UN High Commissioner for Refugees has been viewed as one of the highest authorities to help those displaced. Insurance spreads the financial impact of flooding and other extreme weather events.
Government-subsidized insurance, such as the U. National Flood Insurance Program, is criticized for providing a perverse incentive to develop properties in hazardous areas, thereby increasing overall risk. Numerous countries, including Australia , have held inquiries into and have planned or started adaptation measures.
The state of California has also issued a document titled " California Climate Adaptation Strategy Discussion Draft" that summarizes the best known science on climate change impacts in seven specific sectors and provides recommendations on how to manage against those threats.
New York State is requiring climate change be taken into account in certain infrastructure permitting, zoning, and open space programs; and is mapping sea level rise along its coast. Priorities are to collaborate with the Federal States of Germany in assessing the risks of climate change, identifying action areas and defining appropriate goals and measures. In , the Federal Cabinet adopted the 'Adaptation Action Plan'  that is accompanied by other items such as research programs, adaptation assessments and systematic observations.
The film explores the way in which Bangladeshi farmers are preventing their farms from flooding by building floating gardens made of water hyacinth and bamboo. Many of the adjustments that have been made are primarily agricultural or related to water supply. Some of these adaptive strategies include restoration of degraded lands, rearrangement of land uses across territories, livelihood diversification, changes to sowing dates or water harvest, and even migration. According to Al Gore , writing in in Earth in the Balance ,  adaptation represented a "kind of laziness, an arrogant faith in our ability to react in time to save our skins".
But for every day mitigation is delayed, the need for adaptation grows," which is problematic because "adaptation is more expensive and requires bigger government than mitigation.
According to a report  released by Greenpeace USA in September , climate change denial and the campaigns designed to block adaptation measures grew mainly out of the s negotiations slated to develop a global agreement. During these talks, a number of lobby groups were established with an objective of developing doubt within policymakers and the media through the use of publications in the guise of true science. This tactic, similar to those of large tobacco companies, was utilized by the lobby groups in the hopes of delaying action and blurring the lines between the valid scientific efforts to challenge climate change findings and those designed to merely undermine the credibility of the scientific community.
This strategy feeds into the "uncertainty argument" and develops an impression of debate through references to the uncertainty of scientific findings that exist in any research model. Additional tactics that the lobbyist groups have used include releasing non-stories manufactured from stolen emails and communications plans to develop more media coverage of the uncertainty argument.
A book by the Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag on 'conflict-sensitive adaptation' sheds light on unintended damaging effects of climate adaptation measures. The book draws on findings from Africa and outlines how conflict-sensitive adaptation activities should look that are cognizant of the conflict-effects adaptation may have. The authors provide a "Memorandum for Action on Adaptation for Peace and Stability" that outlines principles to support processes for adaptation and peace such as the establishment of peace and conflict assessments for adaptation programmes, mainstreaming climate change adaptation in conflict-prone contexts, applying conflict sensitive approaches or provisions to ensure participatory processes to design and implement adaptation measures.
Mitigation and Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Several countries have taken a lead in climate vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning. Their web sites contain reports, strategies, and tools which other countries can customize to their own situation. In addition to government and United Nations reports, an extensive research literature assesses options for response to global warming. Much of this literature addresses the potential economic costs associated with different strategies.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Adaptation to global warming. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. But most Americans support a role for scientists in climate policy, and there is bipartisan support for expanding solar, wind energy.
By Cary Funk and Brian Kennedy. Political fissures on climate issues extend far beyond beliefs about whether climate change is occurring and whether humans are playing a role, according to a new, in-depth survey by Pew Research Center. There are also major divides in the way partisans interpret the current scientific discussion over climate, with the political left and right having vastly divergent perceptions of modern scientific consensus, differing levels of trust in the information they get from professional researchers, and different views as to whether it is the quest for knowledge or the quest for professional advancement that drives climate scientists in their work.
When it comes to party divides, the biggest gaps on climate policy and climate science are between those at the ends of the political spectrum. Across the board, from possible causes to who should be the one to sort this all out, liberal Democrats and conservative Republicans see climate-related matters through vastly different lenses.
Perhaps it follows, then, that liberal Democrats are much more inclined to believe a wide variety of environmental catastrophes are potentially headed our way, and that both policy and individual actions can be effective in heading some of these off. And, a majority of conservative Republicans believe that each of the six actions to address climate change can make no more than a small difference.
Democrats are especially likely to see scientists and their research in a positive light. Few in either party say climate scientists should have no role in policy decisions. To the extent there are political differences among Americans on these issues, those variances are largely concentrated when it comes to their views about climate scientists, per se, rather than scientists, generally.
Majorities of all political groups report a fair amount of confidence in scientists, overall, to act in the public interest. And to the extent that Republicans are personally concerned about climate issues, they tend to hold more positive views about climate research. Liberal Democrats are especially inclined to believe harms from climate change are likely and that both policy and individual actions can be effective in addressing climate change.
Among the political divides over which actions could make a difference in addressing climate change:. The stakes in climate debates seem particularly high to liberal Democrats because they are especially likely to believe that climate change will bring harms to the environment.
Among this group, about six-in-ten say climate change will very likely bring more droughts, storms that are more severe, harm to animals and to plant life, and damage to shorelines from rising sea levels. But Republicans with higher science knowledge are no more or less likely to hold these beliefs. These are some of the principle findings from a new Pew Research Center survey.
Most of the findings in this report are based on a nationally representative survey of 1, U.
Introduction. What exactly is global warming and why is it worthy of consideration? Global warming is the scientific phenomenon linking an increase of the average earth temperature because of a trapping of radiation within the earth like a greenhouse.
The Uninhabitable Earth Famine, economic collapse, a sun that cooks us: What climate change could wreak — sooner than you think.
Global warming is not a separate entity, nor uis Climate change. Furthermore these are not well defined subjects, they are vague. However, they are just results of what is happening to our planet – Global Pollution. Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain mechanisms responsible for recent climate changes on Earth, commonly known as 'global warming'. The effort has focused on changes observed during the period of instrumental temperature record, particularly in the last 50 directlenders.ml is the period when human .
This started with a tweet. I’m embarrassed how often that happens. Frustrated by a sense of global mispriorities, I blurted out some snarky and mildly regrettable tweets on the lack of attention to climate change in the tech industry (Twitter being a sublime medium for the snarky and regrettable). Climate change is the problem of our time, it’s everyone’s . Climate change adaptation is a response to global warming (also known as "climate change" or "anthropogenic climate change"), that seeks to reduce the vulnerability of social and biological systems to relatively sudden change and thus offset the effects of global warming. Even if emissions are stabilized relatively soon, global warming and its effects should last many years, and adaptation.