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How to clearly articulate results and construct tables and figures in a scientific paper?


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How to Clearly Report Your Research Findings

Writing the Results Section for a Research Paper
What is the Results section and what does it do?
Aspects to Consider in Writing the Results Section of a Research Paper

Coli colonies but some treatments were more effective on particular strains than others see Figure 1. Coli strain 1 EC 1 tended to be the most sensitive as it produced no colonies on any of the treated plates see Figure 1 E. Coli strains 2 and 3 EC 2 and EC 3 tended to have an intermediate sensitivity to antibiotic treatments. EC 2 was more resilient towards the Chloramphenicol treatment, and EC 3 was more resilient towards the streptomycin treatment. Although colonies were detected on each treatment type, the average number of colonies per plate was significantly lower than that of the control plates.

No colonies were detected on the combination treatment see Figure 1. Coli strain 4 EC 4 tended to be the least sensitive overall, as it produced colonies on all treatment plates, even though it was more sensitive to the individual treatments, compared to EC 2 and EC 3 see Figure 1 ….. Results The following observations were made as a result of experiments conducted by Casey Hospital with respect to four types of E. The graph illustrates that 5mg.

Coli; EC 1 and EC 3. Coli and had a minimal effect on EC 4 strain of E. Coli as the colony sizes were near maximum of the standard result. Due to EC 4 having resistance to both antibiotics there is need for experimentation in finding an antibiotic which EC 4 is not resistant to.

In reality, it can be a little tricky, because it is very easy to include too much information and bury the important findings. The results section is not for interpreting the results in any way; that belongs strictly in the discussion section.

You should aim to narrate your findings without trying to interpret or evaluate them, other than to provide a link to the discussion section. For example, you may have noticed an unusual correlation between two variables during the analysis of your results. It is correct to point this out in the results section. Speculating why this correlation is happening, and postulating about what may be happening, belongs in the discussion section.

It is very easy to put too much information into the results section and obscure your findings underneath reams of irrelevance. If you make a table of your findings, you do not need to insert a graph highlighting the same data. If you have a table of results, refer to it in the text, but do not repeat the figures - duplicate information will be penalized. One common way of getting around this is to be less specific in the text.

For example, if the result in table one shows Table One shows that almost a quarter of….. Perhaps the best way to use the results section is to show the most relevant information in the graphs, figures and tables. The text, conversely, is used to direct the reader to those, also clarifying any unclear points. The text should also act as a link to the discussion section, highlighting any correlations and findings and leaving plenty of open questions.

For most research paper formats , there are two ways of presenting and organizing the results. The first method is to present the results and add a short discussion explaining them at the end, before leading into the discussion proper. This is very common where the research paper is straightforward, and provides continuity. A major purpose of the Results section is to break down the data into sentences that show its significance to the research question s.

The Results section appears third in the section sequence in most scientific papers. It follows the presentation of the Methods and Materials and is presented before the Discussion section—although the Results and Discussion are presented together in many journals. If the scope of the study is broad or has many variables, or if the methodology used yields a wide range of different results, the author should state only those results that are most relevant to the research question stated in the Introduction section.

As a general rule, any information that does not present the direct findings or outcome of the study should be left out of this section. Unless the author is requested by the journal or advisor to included Results and Discussions together, explanations and interpretations of these results should be omitted from the Results. Your research question is based on a survey:.

This can actually be represented as a heading within your paper, though it might be presented as a statement rather than a question:. Likert items and other data points can be included in figures, charts, and graphs to clarify information. Present the results that address this specific research question first.

In this case, perhaps a table illustrating data from a survey. Likert Items are included in this example. Other tables might include standard deviations, probability, matrices, etc. Following this, present a content analysis of one end of the spectrum of the survey or data table.

Include other data such as frequency counts, subcategories, and rich quotes for each category. The amount of textual description used will depend on how much interpretation of the figures is necessary and how many examples the reader needs to read in order to understand the significance of these findings.

After you have assessed the data in one figure and explained it sufficiently, move onto your next research question. This kind of data may be presented through a figure or set of figures for instance, a paired T-test table.

Writing a Results Section

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A section describing results is particularly necessary if your paper includes data generated from your own research. Annesley, Thomas M. "Show Your Cards: The Results Section and the Poker Game." Clinical Chemistry 56 (July ):

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The next stage of any research paper: writing the results section, announcing your findings to the world. Be sure to include negative results - writing a results section without them not only invalidate the paper, but it is extremely bad science. The negative results, and how you handle them, often gives you the makings of a great.

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The results section of a research paper describes to the reader the outcome and findings of the research project. Using some simple techniques in the preparation of this section produces a . Use these tips for your academic article's Research Results section and organize your findings in line with academic writing requirements. How to Write the Results Section of a Research Paper. July 11, Expert Journals is a publishing division of Sprint Investify.

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The results section of the research paper is where you report the findings of your study based upon the information gathered as a result of the methodology [or methodologies] you applied. The results section should simply state the findings, without bias or interpretation, and arranged in a logical sequence. The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures. The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the key results which provide the answers to the question(s) investigated.