Martin Luther King Jr. The fact that most of the civil rights movement leader were also church leaders shows how much church and this movement go together. The two most prominent forms of leadership in the Civil Rights Movement and Black Power are charismatic leadership and grassroots leadership. In order for a movement to be successful there was to be figurehead.
What this figurehead is just the face of the movement, for example Martin Luther king Jr was one of the figure heads chosen for this movement.
When most people think of the Civil Rights Movement he is what comes to mind. The two most prominent forms of leadership in the course of the Civil Rights Movement and Black Power are charismatic leadership and grassroots leadership. Charismatic leadership is the more recognizable form of leadership in the movement this type of structure is modeled after the black church.
It elects a figurehead with a charismatic disposition to essentially work as the face of the movement, such as Martin Luther King or Malcolm X. Representation of ideas and thoughts are relayed directly from those who conceived them, not from a figurehead. This form of leadership was more popular in student groups such as the SNCC and was advocated by leaders such as Ella Baker. While these two forms of leadership are identified separately, they do in fact need each other.
A figurehead leader is a good buffer to allow grassroots work continues without disruption while the public and press focus their attention on the leader. Grassroots is fueled by its workers and a charismatic leader can draw in more manpower and ideas when people are attracted to a figureheads charisma. Most importantly though, charismatic leaders would have nothing to relay and put in action if not for the work of grassroots, creating campaigns, ideas, and strategies.
During this movement however, women are clearly overlooked. Women were everywhere in this movement. It was a moment in history where the oppressed took an organized stand against the oppressors in turn while doing this they were able to find their voice along the way; yet a movement that was so dedicated to a reformation of roles had one fatal flaw.
This movement, so focused on progression, was based on an oppressive system of patriarchal leadership, one designed to muffle the voice of the women until the men decided it could serve a purpose. This age old, oppressive hierarchy, birthed out of the Black church, did to Black women what White America was doing to the whole of the Black population, yet this movement would not have gown and been so successful without the women to organize and spread the word.
In this case the oppressed group became the oppressor. The female role in the Civil Rights Movement was strictly to organize, execute, and appear. Even though women pretty much running the movement in the backround what really demonstrates that women were in the oppressive role is the fact that an organization that was called a political council was held responsible for cutting stencils and making copies which is tedious mundane work.
This was simply one of the many female groups formed in an effort to support the movement by organizing the grassroots work. Due to this fact the women of the movement were relegated to organizational work, the young women were kept in the dark about any other potential role they could play in the movement past making flyers and creating information chains. It was because of this that young girls like, Melba Patillo Beals, were unaware of their full potential in this movement.
In her interview in Voices of Freedom Beals discusses the driving factor behind her decision to put her name on the list to attend Central High. Nowhere in her oral interview does Beals mention a desire to make history, stand out or be an influential figurehead; her driving force was curiosity. When the Brown v. Board of Education decision was delivered, the adults acknowledged the decision but had no discussion of its ramifications with her, she was kept out of the conversation about her own future.
Its primary formation was a means of self-defense, purposed for the education of the Black masses. Although it is likened to the Nation of Islam, the BPP was markedly more aggressive in practice however, violence aside, the organization aimed to provide a safe space for black people to exist, launching food and education programs in the Black community.
The SNCC advocated for direct action and exercised more confrontational forms of action rather than passive acts such as boycotting. They were integral in the launch of the student leadership movement, lunch counter sit-ins, and freedom rides. Ella Baker is most of the time known as the face of grassroots involvement and participatory democracy in the Civil Rights Movement; she spent time working for both the NAACP and the SCLC where she was incredibly important in both organizations.
Ella Baker was disenchanted with the leadership in the SCLC, she felt that their focus was too much about the figureheads and the bureaucratic hierarchy that existed within and she clearly voiced this to the leaders of the organization. Her criticism did not leave her many friends in SCLC and she soon after left to form her own movement. In she helped to found the SNCC by encouraging black youth to take charge of their own freedoms and advocate for themselves, she later participated in the formation of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.
When discussing the Civil Rights movement one cannot by far leave out the biggest figurehead on this movement Martin Luther King. He encouraged the breaking of a law as necessary in the pursuit of justice and I think that most of us assumed that he never toed the line. It is easier now to conceive that MLK did in fact motivate masses to action with a little more than a philosophy of turn the other cheek.
He stood his ground and even pushed back a little bit and it was beliefs and practice such as these that really caused movement in the pursuit of justice. It was Rustin who coached King in Gandhian methodology and beliefs, and transformed him from a man whose home was littered with guns to a successful non-violent leader. Only a black person could be entrusted with the education of the leader of such a delicate and important movement.
It is important to realize that the King we have come to know, the King whom we have praised for his notion of turning the other cheek and leading us into a new era, does not exist without Bayard Rustin; in turn neither does the modern Civil Rights Movement.
The framing techniques and tactics that the movement used was the adoption of certain words that would catch peoples attention they used word like freedom, peace, nonviolent, equality and justice, so that when people would see these pamphlets posters or sign they would be able to relate to issues a lot more, as seen in these pictures. School Segregation and Integration The massive effort to desegregate public schools across the United States was a major goal of the Civil Rights Movement.
Since the s, lawyers from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP had strategized to bring local lawsuits to court, arguing that separate was not equal and that every child, regardless of race, deserved a first-class education. These lawsuits were combined The Murder of Emmett Till The murder of year-old Emmett Till in brought nationwide attention to the racial violence and injustice prevalent in Mississippi.
While visiting his relatives in Mississippi, Till went to the Bryant store with his cousins, and may have whistled at Carolyn Bryant. Her husband, Roy Bryant, and brother-in-law, J. Milam, kidnapped and brutally murdered Till, dumping his body in the Tallahatchie River. Voting Rights When Reconstruction ended in , states across the South implemented new laws to restrict the voting rights of African Americans.
These included onerous requirements of owning property, paying poll taxes, and passing literacy or civics exams. Many African Americans who attempted to vote were also threatened physically or feared losing their jobs. One of the major goals of the Civil Rights Movement was to Women in the Civil Rights Movement Many women played important roles in the Civil Rights Movement, from leading local civil rights organizations to serving as lawyers on school segregation lawsuits.
Their efforts to lead the movement were often overshadowed by men, who still get more attention and credit for its successes in popular historical narratives and commemorations. Many women experienced gender discrimination and sexual harassment within the movement and later
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