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Statistical Terms in Sampling

Survey Definition & Types

❶You are able to collect additional information from talking to participants.

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This article is a part of the guide:
Survey Study Defined
Sampling Error

For psychologists, anthropologists and social scientists they have been regarded as a valid method of research for many years. Scientists are sometimes guilty of becoming bogged down in the general picture and it is sometimes important to understand specific cases and ensure a more holistic approach to research. An example of a study using the case study research design. Some argue that because a case study is such a narrow field that its results cannot be extrapolated to fit an entire question and that they show only one narrow example.

On the other hand, it is argued that a case study provides more realistic responses than a purely statistical survey. The truth probably lies between the two and it is probably best to try and synergize the two approaches.

It is valid to conduct case studies but they should be tied in with more general statistical processes. For example, a statistical survey might show how much time people spend talking on mobile phones, but it is case studies of a narrow group that will determine why this is so. The other main thing to remember during case studies is their flexibility. Whilst a pure scientist is trying to prove or disprove a hypothesis , a case study might introduce new and unexpected results during its course, and lead to research taking new directions.

The argument between case study and statistical method also appears to be one of scale. Whilst many 'physical' scientists avoid case studies, for psychology, anthropology and ecology they are an essential tool. It is important to ensure that you realize that a case study cannot be generalized to fit a whole population or ecosystem. Finally, one peripheral point is that, when informing others of your results, case studies make more interesting topics than purely statistical surveys, something that has been realized by teachers and magazine editors for many years.

The general public has little interest in pages of statistical calculations but some well placed case studies can have a strong impact. The advantage of the case study research design is that you can focus on specific and interesting cases. This may be an attempt to test a theory with a typical case or it can be a specific topic that is of interest.

Research should be thorough and note taking should be meticulous and systematic. The first foundation of the case study is the subject and relevance. In a case study, you are deliberately trying to isolate a small study group, one individual case or one particular population.

For example, statistical analysis may have shown that birthrates in African countries are increasing. A case study on one or two specific countries becomes a powerful and focused tool for determining the social and economic pressures driving this.

In the design of a case study, it is important to plan and design how you are going to address the study and make sure that all collected data is relevant. Unlike a scientific report, there is no strict set of rules so the most important part is making sure that the study is focused and concise; otherwise you will end up having to wade through a lot of irrelevant information.

It is best if you make yourself a short list of 4 or 5 bullet points that you are going to try and address during the study. If you make sure that all research refers back to these then you will not be far wrong. With a case study, even more than a questionnaire or survey , it is important to be passive in your research.

You are much more of an observer than an experimenter and you must remember that, even in a multi-subject case, each case must be treated individually and then cross case conclusions can be drawn. Analyzing results for a case study tends to be more opinion based than statistical methods. The usual idea is to try and collate your data into a manageable form and construct a narrative around it. Use examples in your narrative whilst keeping things concise and interesting.

It is useful to show some numerical data but remember that you are only trying to judge trends and not analyze every last piece of data. Constantly refer back to your bullet points so that you do not lose focus. It is always a good idea to assume that a person reading your research may not possess a lot of knowledge of the subject so try to write accordingly.

In addition, unlike a scientific study which deals with facts, a case study is based on opinion and is very much designed to provoke reasoned debate. If primary data are to be collected, what is the population of interest?

What is an appropriate available sampling frame? How large should the sample be? What are the expected response rates? Key to any successful research project is the ability to capture the information needed to answer the research questions and to test hypotheses. Questionnaires must be designed in such a way as to collect the required information in a clear and efficient manner. Respondents must be provided with and maintain a high level of comprehension of the research subject.

In order to ensure reasonable response rates, both the time and opinions of potential respondents must be treated with respect. We are expert in the design and development of survey instruments that provide the information required for effective decision making, while maintaining content, construct, and criterion related validity. We can arrange for your survey to be fielded either over the Internet via emailed invitations or by telephone.

If your organization will need a consistent respondent group for multiple studies, we can assist you in the development of a specialized panel for this purpose. Quantitative analyses and statistics are the primary methods for drawing accurate conclusions from data. Consequently, the selection of appropriate statistical techniques is critical for the success of any research project.

Our experience has shown that too often researchers select a statistical technique, not because of its value to the research question, but rather, for its apparent sophistication or complexity or currency. We can guide you to the statistical techniques that will best describe your data, and to allow you to draw accurate inferences about target populations and to test research hypotheses.

What is a Case Study?

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Descriptive research is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied. It does not answer questions about how/when/why the characteristics occurred. Rather it addresses the "what" question (what are the characteristics of the population or situation being studied?).

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Posted by FluidSurveys Team June 3, Categories: Survey Design, Research Design, Best Practices. Most research can be divided into three different categories; exploratory, descriptive and directlenders.ml serves a different end purpose and can only be used in certain ways. In the online survey world, mastery of all three can lead to .

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The design is the structure of any scientific work. It gives direction and systematizes the research. Different types of research designs have . The case study research design have evolved over the past few years as a useful tool for investigating trends and specific situations in many scientific disciplines.

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This lesson explores the ways a researcher may employ the types of surveys used in research. We will also go over the strengths and weaknesses of each type of survey. A field of applied statistics of human research surveys, survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys. Survey methodology includes instruments or .