Greek democracy was direct—not only in the sense that citizens could vote for decisions personally, but also in the sense that they could control the political process and the authorities.
It must be pointed out that back then, not everyone could take part in voting—this privilege was only available to male citizens. Slaves—and ancient Greece was a slavery state—and women could not affect social and political life George This led to a representative democracy—the model which is used all over the world today.
It may be constitutional, parliamentary, or presidential—the main feature is that people affect political life through the representatives they have chosen through elections Howards Modern democracy implies many privileges that ancient Greeks did not know of.
For example, people now can vote regardless of their gender, skin color, social status, or financial position. Democracy is considered to be the optimal way to run the state, however many critics talk about democratic tyranny and even the injustice of this form of government Howards The second candidate wins the election, but what about those people whose interests are subjected to the will of the majority?
Democracy is a complicated and versatile phenomenon that can be studied from different approaches. However, as Sir Winston Churchill had said once: Is English your native language? What is your profession? Student Teacher Writer Other. The answer is that most of them do -- if, for no other reason, than they are in the pay of the government, as either; bureaucrats, lodged in the upper end of the government echelon; or those resting in publicly funded universities; or those who are in the social welfare business.
The result of the syndrome is predictable, for, as the public conflict grows, people come to doubt expert pronouncements. Normally people primarily judge the propositions before them in a most obvious way, by their source.
For example, "Of course she claims oil spills are harmless - she works for Exxon. In the days prior to , great large populated areas, for example, Manchester in England, were not represented by a seat in parliament; while little villages, particularly in the south of England, had a seat, sometimes more than one. While some of the larger county seats were somewhat democratic, the little southern village seats were totally in the pockets of the local lords. All that I can see of democracy's role is to put into place those people; who, in a very general way, represent the views of the majority, or rather the views of the party to whom they owe their advancement.
This of course is a recipe for the oppression of the minorities no matter from which strata of society they come; and, no matter whether any particular individual from within society likes the party policies, or not.
Thus, democracy, as past experience will demonstrate, works only where the population shares, fundamentally, the same goals and aspirations. Historically, God and country have been the two banners under which the great masses could proudly stand; but, in a modern society, God and country mean less and less, while, at the same time, the goals and aspirations of various groups increase and diverge.
It maybe that democracy is, and, indeed, has always been, unworkable; but we must continue to hold the ideal high and see to it that its trappings are securely fixed in place as, well -- as a bulwark, such as it is, against tyrannical rule. The reality is that we are forever fixed with a oligarchy government of the few masquerading as a democracy.
The purpose of the ruling few is to execute its constitutional functions, which, because democracy is unworkable, should be tightly circumscribed. The ideal of democracy is to be promoted, as it has been, to the rulers and the ruled, as a sacred icon; never mind that it cannot be used to put a society into action, to pass laws, and never mind that it rarely will cast up honest and wise leaders; it is, in the final analysis, a system that will routinely and expensively rotate those in charge; a manner of bloodlessly changing the guard.
The roots of democracy and freedom for all "western" democracies are planted in the rich history of Britain beginning with the Magna Carta. Enough to point out that when Captain Christopher Jones and his officers, together with their crew and their passengers disembarked from the Mayflower , in December of , the pilgrims drew up a compact that provided for the government of the colony by the will of the majority. Human rights , a subject I deal with elsewhere, came about only through deep and long struggles culminating in historical declarations such as the Magna Carta and the Petition of Right , "A man cannot be compelled to give evidence against himself" ; but it is only with English Bill of Rights in that we see any real progress in the evolution of law designed to protect the "rights" of the normal citizen.
With the defeat of James at the Battle of the Boyne , the claim of divine right or hereditary right independent of law was formally brought to an end. Ever since, an English monarch is "as much the creature of an act of parliament as the pettiest tax-gatherer in his realm.
Liberty Press, 3rd Ed. John Buchanan The Nobel Laureate in Economic Science in and Gordon Tullock in their work, The Calculus of Consent , have shown in an "irrefutable way that whenever a minority is well organized and determined to bribe as many voters as necessary in order to have a majority ready to pass a desired decision, the majority rule works much more in favour of such minorities than is commonly supposed.
The harsher climate of the northern counties was associated with a ruder, a sterner, and a sparser people. Peter Landry peteblu blupete. Box , Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. Bill of Rights History. Latin Maxims of Law. Expanded Bill of Rights. Proxy Voting for House. Repeal State Bar Acts. National ID or Circles of Fonet - phonetic alphabet.
Fonts Used on this Site. To render the selection less than wholly accidental, all those upon whom the lot falls are subjected, before taking up their duties, to a rigorous dokimasia , or character examination, conducted by the Council or the courts. The candidate must show Athenian parentage on both sides, freedom from physical defect and scandal, the pious honoring of his ancestors, the performance of his military assignments, and the full payment of his taxes; his whole life is on this occasion exposed to challenge by any citizen, and the prospect of such a scrutiny presumably frightens the most worthless from the sortition.
If he passes this test the archon swears an oath that he will properly perform the obligations of his office, and will dedicate to the gods a golden statue of life-size if he should accept presents or bribes. You choose a member indeed; but when you have chosen him, he is not a member of Bristol, but he is a member of parliament.
Your representative owes you, not his industry only, but his judgment; and he betrays instead of serving you if he sacrifices it to your opinion. The state includes the dead, the living, and the coming generations. Each of us has a right to cast a vote for an individual to represent us in the legislative assembly. The elected person then goes off to represent all of his constituents, whether they voted for him or not, indeed, whether they have even voted.
How is he to look at issues and how is he to vote assuming, for the moment, that he has a free vote in parliament. Should he vote on the basis of what he perceives the majority of his constituents want, right or wrong; or, as Burke suggests, does he vote his own conscience, vote as a "better and more informed person" than his average constituent; or does he, as it seems our system obliges, just vote the party line.
Popular election, as thus practised, instead of a security against misgovernment, is but an additional wheel in its machinery. The problem, as is so clearly set forth by Mill, is quite aside from the further and separate problem "that issues at stake in political life are too many and too complicated and that very many of them [issues] are actually unknown both to the representatives and to the people represented.
It would not be enough to make a man competent to decide whether to amputate a leg, and it is not enough to qualify him to choose war or peace, to arm or not to arm, to intervene or to withdraw, to fight on or to negotiate.
When distant and unfamiliar and complex things are communicated to great masses of people, the truth suffers a considerable and often a radical distortion. The complex is made over into the simple, the hypothetical into the dogmatic, and the relative into an absolute.
There is an inherent tendency in opinion to feed upon rumors excited by our own wishes and fears. We should never hope or aim to choose a bully, but the elective process will give no guarantee that the people will not end up with one.
Democracy, no matter its imperfections, is a way by which the people can bloodlessly turn out leaders; but, the democratic process will only work with the consent of the leaders. The best that can be expected of a constitutional democracy, the best that can be expected by any political system, is a process by which the people turn up a leader or leaders which are prepared to deal with both the bullies amongst us and those at our borders.
Hopefully, the leader or leaders, so turned up by the "democratic process," do not turn out to be a worst set of bullies then that which might exist in an ungoverned state. If, in the "democratic process," an elected leader turns into a bully; well, then, one should not rely on democracy, except as a rallying cry, to turn him out. Never decide at first glance that it is difficult. Go ahead and see the improvement. Try, try and try again to make up your deficiencies. Start again with stronger determination.
You should not stop if you fail one time, start again. Make stumbling blocks your stepping stones which raise you to success. Success lies in the ability to stand firm as a rock under all circumstances. Develop the sense of competition. For instance, consider the student in your class who stands first in class and who get higher grades than you. Has he two brain or four eyes? No, the only reason is that he is more interested in study than you are interested in study.
You can get higher marks than him if you think how to make it possible. It means possibility of anything depend on your thinking. If you think that you can do it, you can surely do it. Have confidence in yourself and work hard.
Nothing can divert you from your purpose. Have one successful person as your ideal personality and think how did he become successful? Follow his the way which made him successful. Meet successful people and talk to them how they succeeded. They give you inspiration. It enhances your interest in your study. You should have the desire to learn. Desire to learn enables you to sacrifice for study and manage time for study. It enables you to study anywhere, any time. It creates a sense of responsibility in you about study, a sign of success.
It puts you in sense of competition to learn more and more. It make you generate new ideas and techniques for study, how to study effectively, how to concentrate, how to manage time for study. In short, it makes study your habit. With such study you can just pass the exam with low grades or sometime you even fail.
Aim of study is to get distinction in exam with high grades, which is only possible if you have the love or thirst to learn. And thanks for this as this is full of advices. The Blog is titled as for BA students but some Ph. Ds have also taken my essays as references in their research papers. Allah may bless you with more wisdom… Thank you so much for writing such a beautiful essay.
All of your essays are great. They really helped me in my exams. Thank you again dear. May God give you alot of happiness and success in your life. May God give you more wisdom,knowledge and time so you could write more brilliant essays for us. Thank you so much for such an amazing essay,because of it I got 1 prize in ASL essay competition Once again thnks..
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Democracy may be a word familiar to most, but it is a concept still misunderstood and misused. Freedom and democracy are often used to mean the same thing, but they are not the same. People in democracy have many rights.
- Democracy is a unique type of government, and the purpose of this essay is to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses that a democratic government provides. I will detail that many components of this type of society are both strengths and weakness as each component has beneficial aspects as well as unavoidable pitfalls.
Democracy is a tender topic for a writer: like motherhood and apple pie it is not to be criticized. One will risk being roundly condemned if he, or she, points out the serious bottleneck that is presented when a community attempts, through the democratic process, to set plans for positive social action. Democracy was the great victor of the ideological clashes of the 20th century. But if democracy is to remain as successful in the 21st century as it was in the 20th, it must be both assiduously nurtured when it is young—and carefully maintained when it is mature.
Countries that are yet to adopt democracy need to consider it. It will ensure respect of people’s opinions as opposed to dictatorial tendencies as it is in the other forms of governments. If you are looking for help with your essay? Get professional essay writing help from Z Essay writing service: any discipline, any level and complexity. % FREE Papers on Democracy essay. Sample topics, paragraph introduction help, research & more. Class , high school & college. -.