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Origins of the Revolution

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On 12 July , the Civil Constitution of the Clergy made all clergy employees of the state and made them take an oath to the new constitution. Many clergy, as well as the Pope, Pius VI , did not like these changes. Revolutionaries killed hundreds for refusing the oath. On 14 July , a year since the storming of the Bastille, thousands of people gathered in the Champs de Mars to celebrate. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand led the crowd in a religious mass.

Although the members of the Estates-General had only been elected for a year, the members of the Assembly had all taken the Tennis Court Oath. They had promised to keep working until they had a constitution and no constitution had been made. It was decided that the members would keep working until they had a constitution.

The Assembly continued to work on a constitution and make changes. Nobles could no longer pass their titles to their children. Only the king was allowed to do this. For the first time, trials with juries were held. All trade barriers inside France were ended along with unions , guilds , and workers' groups.

Many people with radical ideas began to form political clubs. The most famous of these was the Jacobin Club , which had left-wing ideas.

A right-wing club was the Club Monarchique. Mirabeau had been against this law, but he died on 2 April, and by the end of the year, the law was passed. General Bouille held the same views and wanted to help the king leave Paris. The escape was planned for June 20, Dressed as servants , the royal family left Paris. However, their escape was not well planned, and they were arrested at Varennes on the evening of June The royal family was brought back to Paris.

The Assembly imprisoned Louis and his wife Marie Antoinette , and suspended the king from his duty. Although the king had tried to escape, most members of the Assembly still wanted to include the king in their government rather than to have a Republic with no king at all. They agreed to make the king a figurehead, with very little power.

The king would have to take an oath to the state. If he did not, or if he created an army to attack France, he would no longer be king.

Some people, including Jacques Pierre Brissot, did not like this. They thought the king should be completely removed from the throne and the constitution. Brissot made a petition and a huge crowd came to the Champs de Mars to sign it. Republican leaders Georges Danton and Camille Desmoulins came and gave speeches. The National Guard, led by Lafayette, was called in to control the crowd. The mob threw stones at the soldiers who first fired their guns over the heads of the crowd.

When the crowd kept throwing stones, Lafayette ordered them to fire at the people. Up to 50 people were killed. After this, the government closed many of the political clubs and newspapers. Many radical left-wing leaders, including Danton and Desmoulins, ran away to England or hid in France. Finally the constitution was completed. Louis XVI was put back on the throne and came to take his oath to it.

After that date, the Legislative Assembly would take over. The new Legislative Assembly met for the first time in October Under the Constitution of , France was a Constitutional Monarchy. The King shared his rule with the Legislative Assembly, but had the power to stop veto laws he did not like. He also had the power to choose ministers.

The Legislative Assembly had about members. The other members were independent, but they voted most often with the left wing.

The Legislative Assembly did not agree very well. Because so many of the members of the Assembly were left-wing, they did not like this. On 10 August , the members of a revolutionary group called the Paris Commune attacked the Tuileries, where the King and Queen were living.

The King and Queen were taken prisoner. The Legislative Assembly held an emergency meeting. Even though only a third of the members were there and most of them were Jacobins , they suspended the King from duty.

The kings and emperors of many foreign countries were worried by the French Revolution. They did not want revolutions in their own countries. They promised that they would invade France if their requests were ignored. The Declaration was taken very seriously among the revolutionaries. With the Legislative Assembly in place, the problems did not go away.

The Girondins wanted war because they wanted to take the revolution to other countries. The King and many of his supporters, the Feuillants , wanted war because they thought it would make the King more popular.

They planned to invade the Austrian Netherlands, but the revolution had made the army weak. Soon, Prussia joined on the Austrian side. They both planned to invade. Together, on 25 July, they wrote the Brunswick Manifesto, promising that if the royal family was not hurt, no civilians would be hurt in the invasion.

Many later became Hebertists followers of Jacques Hebert. The role of the Estates General was to provide information and counsel to the crown, usually on matters of pressing importance. It had no executive or legislative authority. It was first held on July 14th , the first anniversary of the fall of the Bastille. It was intended to celebrate and mark the successful culmination of the revolution. The core principle of feudalism is that nobles own land and share it with tenant farmers, in return for rent, fealty, obedience and some unpaid labour.

Feuillants The Feuillants were a political club formed in July after splitting and breaking away from Jacobins. Led by Antoine Barnave, the Feuillants were constitutional monarchists and political moderates who rejected radicalism and republicanism.

First Coalition The First Coalition was a European alliance that waged war against revolutionary France between and It included ordained persons of all ranks, including both higher clergy cardinals, archbishops and bishops and lower clergy priests, monks, nuns, etc.

Revenue from the gabelle went directly to the royal treasury. The importance of salt as a food preservative and flavouring made the gabelle a very unpopular tax.

Girondins or Girondinists The Girondins were a political faction active in the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention in Led by Jacques Brissot, the Girondins pushed for the abolition of the monarchy and the declaration of war against foreign powers — however they baulked at the radicalism of the Jacobins and the Montagnards.

The Girondins were eventually arrested and expelled from the Convention in It was fuelled by panic and rumours of a royalist counter-revolution, as well as personal interests.

Individuals were usually required to be guild members before they could trade or conduct business there. Similar devices had been used in Europe since the 14th century. The name guillotine was derived from a recommendation to the National Assembly from Doctor Joseph Guillotin.

Most hoboreaux lived in rural areas on small plots of land and in modest homes. They were sometimes supported financially by more affluent relatives or friends. Jacobins The Jacobins were a political club, formed at Versailles during the Estates General of Initially known as the Breton Club, the Jacobins began as a group of political moderates, their number including Mirabeau, Sieyes and Barnave.

By the Jacobins had become both democratic and republican, calling for the removal of Louis XVI. Their radicalisation continued during the Reign of Terror. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Significant civil and political events by year. What Is the Third Estate? Treaty of Amiens 25 Mar William V, Prince of Orange. Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov. Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos.

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Ruled as King of France from until , and then as King of the French from to Suspended and arrested during the 10th of August Insurrection, he was .

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French military and political leader. General during French Revolution, Ruler of France as First Consul of French Republic, King of Italy, Mediator of Swiss Confederation, and .

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A series of decrees issued by the National Assembly in August that successfully suppressed the Great Fear by releasing all peasants from feudal contracts. A document, issued by the National Assembly in July , that broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system. This French Revolution glossary contains definitions of important words, terms and concepts relevant to the revolution in France between and

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Consulate - The name of the government established by Napoleon at the end of the French Revolution. Cordelier - A political club in Paris during the early part of the French Revolution. It was led by Gorges Danton and played a major role in . This is a glossary of the French Revolution. It generally does not explicate names of individual people or their political associations; those can be found in List of people associated with the French Revolution. The terminology routinely used in discussing the French Revolution can be confusing, even daunting. The same political faction may be .