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❶In reality, because addiction is a chronic disorder, the ultimate goal of long-term abstinence often requires sustained and repeated treatment episodes p. Genetics In addition to biochemical factors and the cycle of addiction outlined above, according to D.

Sociology of Addiction

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Stress as a feature of addicts' relapse
Addiction and relapse

The first results from an ongoing OQ The results have to be regarded as preliminary due to the small study sample, the self-report measurement and the lack of a control group. Despite these limitations, there is evidence that the program is responsible for most of the improvements demonstrated. As can be seen from this brief review, the field of Internet addiction is advancing rapidly even without its official recognition as a separate and distinct behavioral addiction and with continuing disagreement over diagnostic criteria.

The ongoing debate whether IAD should be classified as an behavioral addiction, an impulse-control disorder or even an obsessive compulsive disorder cannot be satisfactorily resolved in this paper. But the symptoms we observed in clinical practice show a great deal of overlap with the symptoms commonly associated with behavioral addictions. Also it remains unclear to this day whether the underlying mechanisms responsible for the addictive behavior are the same in different types of IAD e.

From our practical perspective the different shapes of IAD fit in one category, due to various Internet specific commonalities e. Nevertheless more research has to be done to substantiate our clinical impression. Despite several methodological limitations, the strength of this work in comparison to other reviews in the international body of literature addressing the definition, classification, assessment, epidemiology, and co-morbidity of IAD [ 2 - 5 ], and to reviews [ 6 - 8 ] addressing the treatment of IAD, is that it connects theoretical considerations with the clinical practice of interdisciplinary mental health experts working for years in the field of Internet addiction.

Furthermore, the current work gives a good overview of the current state of research in the field of internet addiction treatment. Despite the limitations stated above this work gives a brief overview of the current state of research on IAD from a practical perspective and can therefore be seen as an important and helpful paper for further research as well as for clinical practice in particular.

The authors confirm that this article content has no conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Nov. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Problematic computer use is a growing social issue which is being debated worldwide. An example of the rewarding nature of digital technology use may be captured in the following statement by a 21 year-old male in treatment for IAD: Non-psychological Approaches Some authors examine pharmacological interventions for IAD, perhaps due to the fact that clinicians use psychopharmacology to treat IAD despite the lack of treatment studies addressing the efficacy of pharmacological treatments.

Psychological Approaches Motivational interviewing MI is a client-centered yet directive method for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving client ambivalence [ 54 ]. Multimodal Treatments A multimodal treatment approach is characterized by the implementation of several different types of treatment in some cases even from different disciplines such as pharmacology, psychotherapy and family counseling simultaneously or sequentially.

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However, the more common view is that drug addicts are weak or bad people, unwilling to lead moral lives and to control their behavior and gratifications … We need to face the fact that even if the condition initially comes about because of a voluntary behavior drug use , an addict's brain is different from a nonaddict's brain … Recall that as recently as the beginning of this century we were still putting individuals with schizophrenia in prison like asylums, whereas now we know they require medical treatments par.

Amphetamine-type stimulants are the second most widely abused drugs worldwide, after cannabis United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, According to the WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic , 19 percent of Americans smoked nicotine in and tobacco kill nearly six million people each year, up to half of all tobacco users.

In many instances, people who become addicted first use substances voluntarily. Cook noted, most teenagers have used some substance by the time they turn eighteen. Many addicts go through a cycle of abuse and recovery that is difficult to explain. As Leshner observes:. Many people equate addiction with simply using drugs and therefore expect that addiction should be cured quickly, and if it is not, treatment is a failure.

In reality, because addiction is a chronic disorder, the ultimate goal of long-term abstinence often requires sustained and repeated treatment episodes p. This cycle of repeated treatment and relapse is difficult for individuals with addiction, their families, and the general public to understand and can also be viewed as an excuse for an addict's behavior.

Davies notes that the biological source of addiction may be accepted for the wrong reasons, as a means to absolve people who behave badly because the disease is out of their control. The biological explanation for addiction is based on research linking addiction to significant changes to brain chemistry caused by repeated substance use.

For instance, Leshner notes:. Virtually all drugs of abuse have common effects, either directly or indirectly, on a single pathway deep within the brain … Activation of this system appears to be a common element in what keeps drug users taking drugs.

Not only does acute drug use modify brain function in critical ways, but prolonged drug use causes pervasive changes in brain function that persist long after the individual stops taking the drug … The addicted brain is distinctly different from the nonaddicted brain, as manifested by changes in brain metabolic activity, receptor availability, gene expression, and responsiveness to environmental cues … That addiction is tied to changes in brain structure and function is what makes it, fundamentally, a brain disease p.

According to Nora Volkow , director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA , the recognition of addiction as a biological disease has not only changed the way of thinking about addiction for the scientific community but also the options for treatment.

When science began to study addictive behavior in the s, people addicted to drugs were thought to be morally flawed and lacking in willpower.

Those views shaped society's responses to drug abuse, treating it as a moral failing rather than a health problem, which led to an emphasis on punitive rather than preventative and therapeutic actions … addiction is a disease that affects both brain and behavior. We have identified many of the biological and environmental factors and are beginning to search for the genetic variations that contribute to the development and progression of the disease Volkow, , n.

In addition to biochemical factors and the cycle of addiction outlined above, according to D. Stephens , genetics is also a causal factor linked to addiction. For instance, they note:. Twin and adoption studies show that genetics contributes along with environment to our vulnerability to different types of addiction, probably via genes that regulate the metabolism of psychoactive drugs and the brain neurotransmitter systems on which they act as cited in Hall, , p.


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The relationship between addiction and relapse is studied in this sample paper. A discussion of factors and causes of relapse, including stress, follows/5(8).

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A Selection Of 16 Impressive Research Paper Topics On Drug Addiction. Drug addiction is a vice that threatens to destroy the lives of young people and has broken lots of families in the past.

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Research within librarian-selected research topics on Addiction and Substance Abuse from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals, magazines, newspapers and more. Research Papers words ( pages) Essay on Understanding Addiction - Addiction is regarded by most as a social problem to be solved with social solutions, i.e. incarceration.

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Research Paper Outline Examples * Main Page * Research * Foundations * Academic * Write Paper * For Kids by (Nov 5, ) Research Paper Outline Examples This is an article with a few research paper outline examples. Addiction Research Paper Morgan Azbill English Addiction: A Disease or A WeaknessAddiction- a primary, chronic, neurobiologic disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. It is characterized by behaviors that include one or more of the following: impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, continued use despite harm.