But the contemporary cognitive psychologists are of the belief that the raw physical energy that impinges upon the sense organs is transformed, and passes through various stages consisting of sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory.
Here the basic or initial information is successfully modified and reduced. Hermann Ebbinghaus published a book titled 'On Memory' in the year This book opened the avenues for further research on memory. Before Ebbinghaus, there had been only speculative discussions on memory by the philosophers. Aristotle opined, "We remember things by virtue of contiguity, similarity, and contrast. Further experiences are transmitted by the blood and that memory is stored in the heart".
The conceptualization of memory underwent several transformations, but all were philosophical in nature until Hermann Ebbinghaus carried systematic research on the assessment of memory. Before him, it was thought that the effect of higher mental functions can only be observed, but cannot be measured.
The assessment of memory started with the initial experiments of Ebbinghaus, who collected most of the evidences by experimenting on himself. Ebbinghaus himself memorized and then recalled hundreds of lists of nonsense syllables meaningless combinations of letters having no association value, such as XOQ, and ZOF.
His findings about how materials are remembered or forgotten stood the test of time. One of his important findings is that at first, forgetting is very rapid; gradually the rate of forgetting slows down. The contemporary psychologists accept memory as a process in which information is registered, processed, stored, and retrieved, when needed. Preserve Articles is home of thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you.
Learning may be by any of the methods like imitation, verbal, motor, conceptual, trial and error, insight, etc. Hence, whatever may be the type of learning; we must pay our attention to retain what is learnt. A good learning is necessary for better retention. Retention is the process of retaining in mind what is learnt or experienced in the past. The learnt material must be retained in order to make progress in our learning. When good learning takes place —clear engrams are formed, so that they remain for long time and can be remembered by activation of these traces whenever necessary.
It is the process of bringing back the stored or retained information to the conscious level. This may be understood by activities such as recalling, recognising, relearning and reconstruction. Recalling is the process of reproducing the past experiences that are not present. For example, recalling answers in the examination hall. It is to recognise a person seen earlier, or the original items seen earlier, from among the items of the same class or category which they are mixed-up.
Relearning is also known as saving method. Because we measure retention in terms of saving in the number of repetition or the time required to relearn the assignment. The difference between the amount of time or trials required for original learning and the one required for relearning indicates the amount of retention. Reconstruction is otherwise called rearrangement. Here the material to learn will be presented in a particular order and then the items will be jumbled up or shuffled thoroughly and presented to the individual to rearrange them in the original order in which it was presented.
There are five kinds of memory. These are classified on the basis of rates of decay of the information.
Read this Comprehensive Essay on Memory: Meaning, Nature and Types of Memory! Meaning and Nature: Memory is one of the important cognitive processes. Memory involves remembering and forgetting. These are like two faces of a coin. Though these two are opposed to each other by nature, they play an important role in the life [ ].
Free memory papers, essays, and research papers. The Reliability of Memory - According to Sternberg (), memory is the extraction of past experiences for information to be used in the present.
Applying Memory Strategies Essay - Applying Memory Strategies Memory is an internal journal or account of a previous circumstance or experience that a subject has met. Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now!
The first section provides a brief introduction of main-memory database systems and the difference between main-memory and conventional database systems. /5(12). Memory is an important cognitive process, which helps us to record the past so that we can refer to it later, as and when required. words Essay on Memory Home.