However, Obama was re-elected by a substantial majority, defeating Mitt Romney by a margin of in electoral votes see Figure 4. Democrats gained two Senate seats and eight House seats, although Republicans retained control of the House.
PPACA, a complex piece of legislation, aims at improving all three dimensions of the health care system — access, cost, and quality. Of the roughly 50 million uninsured Americans, slightly more than half will likely receive health insurance coverage when the law is fully implemented, leaving the nation well short of universal coverage. The following provisions are designed to expand access to care:.
The federal programs are so large and so many providers depend on them for payment that federal policies tend to have considerable impact even in the private sector. As of this writing, action on the latter two measures has stalled. Under pressure from private health insurers and seniors, the Obama Administration scaled back the planned Medicare payment reductions. These costs are covered by increased taxes and fees, so that the net effect is predicted to be a reduction in the federal budget deficit.
The biggest source of additional tax revenues is higher-income taxpayers, who face a 0. The health care sector, which will benefit from tens of millions of new customers, is also subject to new taxes and fees directed at pharmaceutical manufacturers, medical device manufacturers, and health insurers except for nonprofits covering the poor, elderly, or disabled.
Other revenue will be raised from penalties on large and medium firms not offering coverage to their employees, from individuals choosing not to obtain qualified coverage, from tax shelters lacking economic substance, from comprehensive health plans offering upscale service, and from a tax on tanning beds.
Implementation of the new law has predictably sparked numerous controversies. Implementation involves complex sets of regulations and guidance issued by federal agencies such as the Departments of Health and Human Services, Labor, and the Treasury, as well as policy choices by the fifty states, a majority of which have Republican governors 30 or Republican-controlled legislatures 27 or both.
Heretofore, each state has determined the income level that qualifies residents for Medicaid assistance. A second major implementation issue is the creation of insurance exchanges, or markets where individuals and small businesses can shop for health insurance plans.
But as of this writing, 26 states have indicated that they will refuse to do so. In those states, the federal Department of Health and Human Services will operate the exchanges. Measures to control the cost of health care remain controversial. Among the first to feel a financial sting will likely be younger men.
The new law limits how much insurers can charge higher-risk individuals such as the elderly and the sick, and bans rate discrimination against women who in the past have routinely been charged higher premiums than men for identical coverage in the market for individual insurance Insurance companies are expected to hedge against diminished revenue streams from groups such as the elderly, the sick, and women by raising premiums for previously advantaged groups such as younger men.
Shifts in premium costs from one group to another, the topic of the paragraph above, merely redistribute the impact of health care cost increases, without doing anything to moderate the increases. But the vast majority of health care services are still provided on a fee-for-service basis.
The Independent Payment Advisory Board: PPACA provided for creation of a powerful new entity to restrain health care costs when they exceed a specified increase rate: Empowering the IPAB is a rule-approval procedure designed to insulate cost-cutting decisions somewhat from the tensions of partisan politics driven by interest-group pressures.
In the face of intense political and rhetorical opposition, as of this writing the Obama Administration has not yet even nominated members of the IPAB, and its statutory functions remain unexercised. Since health care inflation has diminished, however, the absence of an effective IPAB has so far made little practical difference.
Contraceptives are among the preventive health services that PPACA regulations require insurance plans to cover without cost sharing. Religious groups such as the Catholic Church, which view the use of some or all contraceptives as sinful, strenuously object to this requirement.
The rule as originally promulgated exempted religious employers such as churches from the contraceptive coverage requirement, but it did not exempt other kinds of religion-affiliated organizations such as hospitals, universities, and charities. Many of them have filed lawsuits contesting the rule as a violation of religious freedom. As iconic research by Wennberg and colleagues 33 has demonstrated, wide variations in clinical practice exist for treatment of identical conditions.
The American people will believe that access to healthcare is a right, not a privilege, and in turn they will band together to strive for this cause. Furthermore, this sense of community will bring about a new degree of unity to the nation. One final component we should address in addition to the benefits of a universal healthcare policy is what current candidates are saying about healthcare.
Democratic President Obama clearly supports this notion of a universal healthcare program, as evinced by his legislative policies that support this change. Specifically, Mitt Romney most closely agrees with this ideology. Both plans, for instance, make it illegal for insurance companies to discriminate based on any pre-existing conditions Gillepse Both plans also employ governmental funds to subsidize their programs Gillepse.
Because of this controversy, we can thus expect a heated debate from these two candidates about the idea of a nation-wide healthcare plan. While the Democratic party may support the legislation and the Republican party may disapprove of this policy, after researching both ideologies we can how the debate over universal healthcare is not a rigid or defined dichotomy.
Of course, there is always an element of surprise in any presidential election. Undeniably the issue of universal healthcare is bound to pose debate between President Obama and Mitt Romney. However, it is important to realize the benefits of the Affordable Care Act. Finally, when looking at this topic of debate in regards to the presidential election, we can certainly expect a strong and engaging debate between President Obama and Mitt Romney.
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Brief review of the concept of healthcare reform. Healthcare reform affects patients, healthcare providers, government spending and biomedical researchers.
A good healthcare reform should be cost effective in its implementations and affordability. In my view, any reform in the healthcare sector should be that, which widens the population that receives insurance coverage, diversifies and minimizes the cost of healthcare, protect the right patients and physicians as well as improves accessibility and quality in order to eliminate strikes of healthcare givers and suffering of patients.
Although healthcare reforms should aim at fairness and sustainability, high costs of medical coverage and economic impacts on insurance companies are the major effects of healthcare reforms.
Healthcare reforms have affected the profit margins, administrative costs, membership growth and medical management and expenses of insurance companies. The attempt by the insurance companies to strive to remain relevant in the business by providing adequately medical coverage only results to a lot of risk and adverse selection.
In this case, majority of the members covered under the insurance scheme are sick, making the companies to pay out medical expenses exorbitantly. Thus reduces the entire profit margin of the companies. In fact, according to Moffatt, the efforts to minimize the risks through provisional exclusion and lifetime benefits only compel the companies to incur more risks. Ideally, since majority of the insurance takers are sick people, adverse selection can easily kill an insurance company.
- Health Care Reform is a concern for people that have health insurance, for those that can’t afford health insurance and the price of healthcare for all of us. There are the difference views on Health Care Reform: The healthcare view, the public opinion and The House and the Senate.
Health Care Reform. Incorrectly called Obamacare, with the proper name should be called, directlenders.ml affordable Health care act, stated to have been designed to help millions of people. But questionable at best.
health care reform essaysThird Party Oversight in Health Care Reform The United States health care system is under a period of rapid change. Managed care growth, technological changes and a growing population is forcing the American health system to reform and change its traditional health care mo. Feb 27, · Health Care Reform Essay. Healthcare Financial Reform Proposal Sandra Xavier Grand Canyon University: HCA Professor Tina Block July 8, Healthcare Financial Reform Proposal I believe healthcare reform is a waste of time and money but I also see that it can be beneficial to many uninsured Americans. First of all, health care .
Healthcare Financial Reform Proposal Sandra Xavier Grand Canyon University: HCA Professor Tina Block July 8, Healthcare Financial Reform Proposal I believe healthcare reform is a waste of time and money but I also see that it can be beneficial to many uninsured Americans. First of all, health care costs keep rising and in the. Free Essay: Health Care Reform Health care has been an area of discussion for some time now. In the United States, the current health care system is a.