Sex ratios before, during, and after the war are contained in the bottom-right half of table 3. In Germany, the sex ratio dropped from 0. Thus, many women did not marry, and many children grew up without a father.
Even after the war, about 4 of the 11 million German prisoners of war remained in captivity, and the last 35, German soldiers returned from the Soviet Union in which further compounded the problem of absent fathers Wehler, World War II caused several severe hunger crises which led to many casualties, and may have had long-term effects on the health of survivors.
For example, since the beginning of the German occupation in Poland, the nutritional situation of the non-German population was poor.
The average caloric intake for the Polish population was about calories in The situation was worst in the Warsaw Ghetto where average food rations were limited to about calories per day in The famine was mainly caused by three factors: The nutritional situation returned to acceptable levels towards the end of Neelson and Stratman use Cohort Data to show that undernourishment of children who were 1 or 2 years old at the time of the famine had a significantly lower probability of being literate or to complete upper secondary education.
About 20, deaths, mainly among elderly men, are attributed to this famine. The famine ended with the end of the German occupation in May The Dutch famine has been extensively studied because it affected an otherwise well-nourished population at a very specific time and region. Individuals exposed to this famine in utero are shown to suffer from cognitive and mental problems and addiction Neugebauer et al.
Germany suffered from hunger between and when the food supply from occupied countries ceased. In the US occupation zone, the Office of Military Government for Germany established a goal of calories per day in , but in the first months of occupation, this goal often could not be met. There were regions where average calories per day were around Gimbel, Death rates raised by the factor 4 for adults and 10 for infants during this period.
With a good harvest and currency reform in June , nutritional shortages were overcome Zink, Figure 2 demonstrates that hunger episodes during the war were much more severe in war countries than in those countries that did not participate in the war. We also see that there was a great amount of diversity in periods of hunger within war countries.
Hunger is more common in regions where combat took place within war countries. Finally and not surprisingly, the experience of hunger was far more common among those of low socio-economic background as a child. With respect to hunger, our analysis shows that the individual-level reports in SHARELIFE match well historical information on the timing and location of hunger episodes we collected from historic sources. To illustrate, in figure 2 the Greek hunger spike occurred in —, the Dutch in —45, and the German in — Dispossession was often associated with persecution and resulted in geographic displacement of populations during and immediately after the war.
There were three main periods when people were forced to flee their homelands. During WWII, millions of Jews, but also opponents of the Nazi regime, were expropriated, and often sent to concentration camps and were murdered there. These border changes induced millions of individuals to leave their places of residence and flee to other parts of Europe. The Soviet Union annexed territory from some of its neighboring countries, inter alia from Czechoslovakia, Germany, and Poland. Poland in turn received one part of pre-war Germany in compensation.
Those Poles having lost their homes in the part occupied by the Soviet Union were moved to the new part, so Poland and with it millions of people were moved westwards. Figure 3 shows inflows and outflows of populations during and after the end of WWII into the new states in their new borders. Germany lost about one quarter of its territory.
About 2 million people have been estimated to have died on the flight. After the war, the remaining territory of Germany was divided into four occupational zones. About 4 million people fled from the approaching Soviet armies to the British and US zone where the occupation was less severe. In Germany, destroyed cities had to accumulate millions of ethnic Germans from other parts of Europe. A further wave of dispossessions happened in Eastern countries after WWII when private property was nationalized in the socialist and communist economies.
Mainly banks, energy, and transport firms were nationalized, but there were also some expropriations which happened as penalty for cooperation with the Nazi regime.
The bottom left-hand side of table 3 displays dispossession rates in our SHARE countries by time period with the final column indicating the percent ever dispossessed.
For respondents living in Germany and Poland, dispossession happened more frequently during the war period, while they happened after the war in Czechoslovakia. Dispossessed individuals in our sample are over proportionally born outside of the current borders of their country. Analyzing countries of origin, many of them came from Eastern Europe, thus they most probably lost their property with the big wave of nationalizations after WWII.
Not surprisingly, it is the foreign-born living in our SHARE countries who were most likely to be dispossessed. Based on the descriptive data and review in the prior section, we find enormous variation even among war countries in the immediate impact of WWII. Instead, changing gender ratios induced by differential male mortality in the war appear to be a more plausible pathway operating both through absence of fathers and difficulties faced by women in marrying.
Hunger and immediate and long-term stress created by battles, dispossession, and persecution would also appear to be plausible pathways that could impact adult health, both physical and mental, and our later life measures of adult SES. To analyze long-term impacts of WWII on health and economic outcomes, we use the fact that different countries in Europe and different people in those counties were differentially affected by WWII at different points in time.
To study effects on adult outcomes, we use two indicators of being affected by World War II: Our first measure essentially creates a war dummy equal to zero for everybody in a non-war country Denmark, Switzerland, and Sweden , and for everybody born after the war period no matter what country they lived in. Alternatively, it is equal to one for everybody alive in a war country Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Netherlands, and Poland during the war period. The war period ends in for all war countries, while it includes to in Germany and Austria, when they were under allied occupation.
For these countries, the war period ended with the currency reform in Germany in Individuals could certainly have been affected by the war even if they were born after the war, but the channels we emphasize in this paper—combat, hunger, dispossession, persecution, and the absence of a father—were more likely to have affected those who lived during the war.
Our second war measure involves constructing a variable indicating whether there were combats and how many combats occurred in the region within the country in which the individual lived during WWII. Thus, in the war countries, we create two dummy variables based on the number of months of exposure the respondent had to combat in the place they lived during the war—0 to 2 months of exposure to combat and 3 or more months of exposure to combat.
The purpose of this variable was to test whether actual exposure to combat was an important mechanism for the war effects that we estimate below. We did not include Spain in our analysis since Spain experienced a civil war in the late s, so a distinction between whether Spain is a war country or not is very ambiguous. The results were not significantly different if Spain was included. For all of our later-life health and SES outcomes and channel outcomes, our estimating equation takes the form.
Male indicates a respondent was male. War is one of our two measures of war exposure outlined above, which vary by country or region within a country and year of birth. Since error terms within country and within year may be correlated, we used the cluster option in STATA. We estimate reduced form models using our two War variables on later adult life health and SES outcomes and the principal channels of war. Health outcomes include prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and heart disease, body height in centimeters a summary measure of early-life health conditions , whether an individual is depressed using a dummy variable for presence of at least four symptoms on the EURO-D scale, and self-reported health status.
Self-reported health status is recorded on a scale excellent, very good, good, fair, and poor which we have translated to a scale from one to five with five the best health status. Our adult SES and economic outcomes include log of household net worth, whether the individual was ever married, and life-satisfaction in The first is obtained from baseline SHARE in and, in an attempt to make the education variable comparable between individuals in the same country, assigns a standardized year for each education value.
For example, university graduates in a country would be assigned a The second education variable is available in the second SHARE wave and is equivalent to the actual number of years spent in education. We use the second measure because Poland and the Czech Republic were not part of baseline SHARE and for those two countries the first measure is not available.
However, we hypothesize that WWII may have disrupted education for many respondents and resulted in a longer time to complete a given level of education. To test that hypothesis for the sub-sample of respondents who have both measures of education from the second and first SHARE waves, we estimated a model that amounts to the difference between the two education measures the second-wave education minus the first-wave education variable.
Figure 5 displays the association of three of our key outcomes—education, self-reported health, and depression—with time period of birth using three sub-sets of countries—Germany and Austria combined, other war countries, and the non-war countries. These outcomes are each expressed as the difference between each of the first two kinds of war countries minus the outcome in the non-War countries. For all three outcomes, the outcomes deteriorate relative to the non-war countries for those born at a time they would experience war.
Table 5 summarizes results obtained for adult health outcomes and table 6 for adult SES outcomes. We present regressions in the A panels that use only the aggregate war exposure measures and in panel B the measure that distinguishes between very limited exposure to combat two months or less, including zero or an more extensive combat exposure three or more months with the left-out category being not exposed to war at all.
In terms of right-hand side variables, there are no missing values for gender. If the outcome in any particular model is missing, this observation was not included in that specific model. Missing values in our outcomes are relatively rare. In terms of main channels dad absence, dispossession, hunger, and persecution , missing values are in the order of one in a thousand observations.
OLS regressions include both country dummies and birth-year dummies. OLS regressions include both country dummies and birth year dummies. Consistent with the literature, men have higher levels of adult diabetes and heart disease, lower levels of depression, and report themselves in better subjective health than woman do Banks et al. Our principal concern involves estimates for aggregate war and combat variables. Being in a war country during the war increased the probability of diabetes in later life by 2.
These increases are all high relative to baseline rates Appendix Table B. Estimated effects on heart disease and height are not statistically significant. The B panel of table 5 displays results for months of combat exposure variables—number of months of exposure respondents had to combat in the place they lived during the war in war countries using 0—2 months of exposure to combat and 3 or more months of exposure to combat.
These results basically parallel those obtained for the war variable in both direction and magnitude—those with combat exposure were more likely to have diabetes as an adult, were in worse self-reported health, and were more likely to be depressed. Table 6 repeats the same type of models for adult economic outcomes in Not surprisingly for these generations, compared to women men achieve more years of schooling, have higher net worth, are less likely to marry, and have higher levels of life satisfaction—common findings in the literature.
Those in a war country during the war achieved about three-tenths of a year less education 7 and achieved lower levels of life satisfaction about a third of a point lower relative to a mean of 7. The education difference model suggests that war makes respondents take longer a third of a year to reach a given level of education. Similarly, this exposure to war reduced the probability of women being ever married about three percentage points but not the marriage probability for men, consistent with the relative scarcity of men due to war.
In contrast, ln household net worth is not associated with the wartime experience suggesting that this outcome mainly depends on post-war savings behavior and trends in asset prices.
The war combat models in the B panel of table 6 produce roughly similar results in direction and magnitude of these outcomes. One purpose of our combat variables was to test whether the actual exposure to combat was an important mechanism for the war effects that we estimate above. With the sole exceptions of adult depression table 5 and live satisfaction table 6 , the estimated magnitude of the worse adult SES and health outcomes appear to be about the same amongst those with large or small exposures to actual combat.
The exceptions are of interest since it seems reasonable that frequent exposure to combat is associated with adult depression and lower levels of life satisfaction as the vivid memories of that experience persist into adulthood.
As in any such analysis, there are issues of possible selection effects due to fertility, mortality, and migration that may have biased our estimates. The concern with selective fertility is that high-SES mothers reduced their fertility more during the war, which on average would lead to less healthy babies. SHARE does not contain variables on education of parents so we used instead our measure of childhood SES, acknowledging its possible endogenity.
Childhood SES was split at the median. In all three periods, fertility is highest in the low-SES groups. But differential changes by SES in fertility across these three time periods do not seem large enough to be producing our results. Comparing pre-War and during-War periods, there was about 0. Similarly, comparing post-war to during-war periods, average fertility rose by about one child in both SES groups. Moreover, when we added childhood SES measures to our models, which should partly control for any selective fertility associated with the war, our estimates of the long-term effects of war did not change much.
Individuals in our analytical sample are those still alive in so they are a selected sample of the population that experienced WWII. To the extent that those more affected are less likely to have survived, our results should understate the full effects of war on long-term health and SES outcomes. A more complicated issue concerns differential mortality by SES induced by the war.
If mortality due to the War was much higher in low-SES groups whose health would have been worse anyway , we would further understate health effects of War. We examined data on age of death of father by SES by whether one lived in a war or non-war countries, and by whether you experienced the war as a child born before Once again, dividing SES at the median we found the following for the mean age of death of father.
Those born after who did die should be younger but the key comparison is differentials by SES. For non-war countries, we find that in comparing pre- and post that the age of death of father decreased by. Using the same comparison, the age of father fell by. Once again, this degree of selection does not seem large enough to be driving our results.
Because of population shifts, especially inflows documented in figure 3 , we confined our analysis to the native-born in each country.
Among countries in our data, figure 3 shows that outflows were significant only in Czech Republic, Poland, and Germany. Since it was not encouraged by receiving countries, migration during and after the War was quite difficult in Europe. But there was some migration and one must allow for the possibility that selective migration may influence our estimates on war effects especially for these three countries.
Of course, people could have temporarily left combat areas as combat was taking place but stayed inside the same country, which should lead to an understatement of combat effects. We next turn to our estimates of how the micro pathway channels we highlighted above—hunger, dispossession, persecution, and the absence of father—are related to the experience of WWII. They were also asked whether they had ever been victims of persecution because of their political beliefs, religion, nationality, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or their background.
Unfortunately, no time period for that persecution was asked. Finally, the absence of the father is defined as the absence of the biological father at the age of We also included in our models an additional possible pathway—whether a respondent received immunizations as a child. A shows how micro channels are related to the experience of war. Males are both more likely to suffer from hunger and to be persecuted. The latter is what we expected given that mainly men were politically active during this period of time.
Having experienced WWII increases the likelihood of experiencing hunger by about eight percentage points, 9 dispossession and persecution by one percentage point, the absence of a father by two percentage points. These estimates are large relative increases given baseline risks. The experience of war was associated with a lower probability of immunization as a child, which is unsurprising given that this was wartime.
This immunization result may be a pathway through which adult health eventually suffers. B our interest lies in whether the experience of combat is the mechanism that leads to war effects. Once again, the size of these estimates is very similar to those obtained by the country wartime variable. The experience of hunger and absence of the father is somewhat stronger for our respondents who lived in a region strongly affected by combat 3—10 months of combat than for those in regions with none or only mild experience of combat.
However, differences are not large. In fact, we expect the death of men during wartime to not necessarily happen in their region of residence.
Persecution is related to war per se, but not necessarily to an increased experience of combat. Thus, combat does come with an increased likelihood of hunger as, for example, was the case in the Dutch hunger winter. Also, combat led to local deaths of the civilian population, but military casualties and the deaths of fathers often occur far from the families affected by it.
Childhood SES is an index generated by factor analysis Mazzonna, For our analysis, we divide childhood SES status into three terciles and label those terciles low, middle, and high. Given the destructive scale of WW2 that included bombing that sometimes destroyed civilian homes and movement of men into the military, the possibility of such endogenity is clearly an important caveat to keep in mind.
We did re-estimate all models in tables 5 — 7 with these dummy variables for childhood SES terciles included and our estimates of the war barely changed. Our distributional results are contained in table 8. All models continue to contain country and year of birth dummies and a dummy for male. We include both main effects for experiencing war and for childhood SES being either low or middle class.
To identify distributional effects of war, we include a full set of interactions of the war with childhood SES. Once again, the results obtained are very similar whether we use the war country variable or our combat variable so table 8 only displays the results for the war variable. The outcomes modeled are the same as those in tables 5 — 7 —adult health, adult SES, and channels of war. We first discuss main effects of childhood SES.
Compared to those in the high childhood SES group, those in the lowest one have higher levels of adult diabetes 3. The middle childhood SES group consistently lies between the bottom and top in terms of these adult health outcomes.
These results conform to the general finding in the literature that childhood economic circumstances are very predictive of later-life adult economic and health outcomes Currie, ; Case et al.
Similarly, in accordance with the literature, higher childhood SES is associated with much higher levels of adult education, net worth, and life satisfaction, another indication of the strong economic transmission across generations in these outcomes. The more novel results are in the third panel of table 8 which deals with the channels of war. The probability of being dispossessed was highest in the high childhood SES group, not surprising as there was more to capture.
Persecution was also highest in the high SES category, while obtaining childhood immunizations was highest in the lowest SES category. Absent fathers were not strongly differentiated across SES categories.
Finally, we examine differences in associations with war by childhood SES categories. For childhood SES by WWII interactions among the health variables, we find the negative health effects to be either neutral by SES categories or that the negative health effects are concentrated on the middle class as in the summary measure of self-reported health or concentrated in the middle and lower class as with heart disease, possibly reflecting the role of lifetime stress with that disease.
In contrast, we find very strong interactions of a negative middle class war interaction for many of our adult SES outcomes—education, and ln net worth. Life satisfaction decrements associated with the war were concentrated on the lower and middle class. In terms of being ever married, the negative effects of the war were highest on the highest SES women and the lowest SES men. A summary of health and SES outcomes does suggest that the middle class suffered more due to the war with the lower class next in line.
Finally, the length of time it takes to achieve a given level of education due to war expands the most for the low and middle class compared to the upper class. The bottom panel of table 8 shows that some pathways through which war operates are concentrated among the poorest households hunger and immunizations present for the middle class , some are concentrated among middle class dad absent , or the highest SES households dispossession. Persecution was focused on the middle and upper classes.
To conduct this analysis we use new data—SHARELIFE—that records not only adult outcomes in , but also contains retrospective data for salient aspects of the wartime experiences of respondents. We augment these data with historical information on how WWII affected individuals differently over time and across regions.
Our data allow us to analyze which type of individuals were most affected, and by which channels. Our analysis shows that experiencing war increased the probability of suffering from diabetes, depression, and with less certainty heart disease so that those experiencing war or combat have significantly lower self-rated health as adults.
Experiencing war is also associated with less education and life satisfaction, and decreases the probability of ever being married for women, while increasing it for men. We also analyze pathways through which these wartime effects took place and found strong effects for hunger, dispossession, persecution, childhood immunizations, and having an absent father.
Would you like to make it the primary and merge this question into it? Merge this question into. Split and merge into it. You'd need to look in a few books to get a good answer to this question. Also what would we consider long term? Maybe the 'lasting effects' of World War II. One could be the continuing, but so far relatively brief, role of the U. Answer It has been said that WWI was and industrial war. Cold war again an extension became a war for markets. Current situation could possibly be for energy?
Income and Resource disparity? What were the effects of World War 2? Effects of World War 2 Complex and Detailed World War 2 was unusual in that for the first time in modern history perhaps years? This was despite WWII being the bloodiest 'soldiers' war in all history. It is estimated that about 30,, soldiers died in the conflict from battle a few million more from mistreatment at POWs, roughly half and half Allied and Axis.
However, over 50,, civilians died. Civilians were deliberately targeted by the bombing raids conducted by the British against German targets, this being British government policy during the conflict.
American bombers tried to be more 'accurate' and only attack targets of some military value - industries, military targets - but still caused many civilian deaths. Politically, World War 2 resulted in a weaker influence of Western Europe. Previously, Western Europe had shaped much of the way the world ran.
After World War 2, though, when these nations were exhausted economically, militarily, etc. The result was a bipolar equilibrium, that is, two superpowers: In Russia there were millions of civilians who died. Some were targets of Nazi racial policy Jews and political motivation communist party members. German military actions also killed many civilians such as the air raid on Stalingrad that killed about 60, Many civilians died of starvation to a large extent due to the Russian government policy of destroying all food supplies they could during retreats.
Otherwise, the Russian army used civilians of all ages as cannon fodder to rush German defensive positions useful to identify gun emplacements or even to just force the Germans to use up ammunition. Russians forces continued their brutal ways as they entered Germany and Poland. Probably two million defenseless German civilians were murdered outright by their armies.
Militarily, new technologies, from much improved tanks and airplanes to the deadly atomic bomb, had been developed to make wars faster and more brutal. Other developments that pertained to daily life were nylon, various other synthetics and other practical inventions. World War 2 brought about many changes. Women were finally granted the right to participate in voting in France and Italy.
Women were also much more exposed to the work force as most of the men were off into the war. Here is more input: You see, we gave money to Germany to help pull them out of a depression, and Germany gave that money to Great Britain and France for war debts. GB and France would then give the money back to us, completing the circle. When we went into the Great Depression this money stopped flowing. That requires a LONG answer, but in general terms it could be said that: The world got to be divided in two mainly.
Communism expanded over the world, colonialism started to disappear for good in theory! There is a lot more in expansion of Commmunism and the cold war, and the foundation of U. After the war ended the USSR refused to retreat back to its old borders. They DID capture this land fairly, had suffered the most deaths in the war, and when that happens you sorta do get pissed off How right he was.! In the second Persian Gulf war its impossible for Germany or Japan to provide military support due to the fact that they can't build up any army larger than a defense force.
More people had a job. Women had a chance to work. Independence for some nations. A had a end to their depression. Lots of people died. Bombs destroyed many buildings. Food shortage for nations. Children had their parents leave them to go to war. People lost family members. Many countries became Communist. Countries were also short of food for a few years after the war. The brutality did not end with the end of the war either.
In particular the Soviets continued to brutalize the people of eastern Europe, especially the German civilians. Other nations such as the Chezchs, Poles, and French also killed many German civilians after the war. The barriers of civilization that were broken down in WWI have never been repaired.
WWII was merely the opening act to the modern warfare technique of deliberately killing civilians. Thus we see the wave of terrorist attacks against police, schools, and religious persons in Iraq and other nations right up to the the major world powers targeting each others populations centers with atomic weapons.
AS the result, world witnessed strong opposing Superpowers trying to influence Third World countries, fighting wars on their soil and killing their weak economies. WW II was not fought for people, but greedy leaders Communism - that's what was the result of horrible accident of people's stupidity. Some of the effects of World War 2 were the destruction of cities and families and the unprecedentedly large number of deaths amongst civilians and soldiers. Those are the obvious answers.
Another after effect of World War 2 was the Cold War. The world lived with the threat of nucleur warfare between the two most powerful nations, the United States and the Soviet Union. Please have the hospitality of visiting a website: Something you should take the interest in learning about if you haven't already.
What were the short term effects on the world after World War 2? The Cold war both short term and long term. The polarization of the world between the two sides also led to the Korean crisis, the Berlin airlift, the uprisings in both Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The Marshall plan was also a short term affect upon the world that reaped long term benefits, as the US helped to rebuild the world.
Also there were power vacuums created by the WWII. Both Britain and France began to lose their colonial possessions. This meant freedom to lots of differing countries. What long term effects did World War 2 have on women's lives?
World War Two had a profound effect on the women of the United States -- particularly in the area of employment. Jobs for women were limited -- nurses, salesgirls, domestics cooks, maids, cleaning women, etc. I don't know what the country would have done without them.
I don't know what the percentage of women in the workforce is today -- but it's very high. What were the short and long term effects on Poland and the Poles during and after World War 2?
Poland suffered more damage in WW2 than any West European country. Warsaw, the capital, was almost completely destroyed. About six million Poles mainly civilians out of a pre-war population of about 35 million were killed, about half of them Jews and the other half Gentiles. The Soviet Union kept that portion of Poland that it had invaded in Many of the inhabitants were Ukrainians, but the Poles living there were deported westwards.
As a kind of compensation for this loss, Poland acquired most of Silesia, Pommerania and about two-thirds of East Prussia from Germany, despite the fact that these areas were German. The Germans living there were expelled, amid considerable loss of life. Poland became a satellite of the Union of Soviets. During the German occupation Poles were forbidden to receive any schooling beyond age of men. The country's long-standing tradition of anti-semitism continued during and after the war, and some Holocaust survivors were slaughtered by Poles in What effect did World War 2 have on women?
After the loss of family, perhaps sons and husbands, to the war,obviously there was a great amount of depression and sadness. Women also took on many male roles during WW2. Such as farming, working in large factorys and in some cases building, to restore damage done by air-raids. Not only were the women full time workers they were also full time mothers to any younger children they may have. I think the real question is, 'how did women cope during the war?
Alot of restrictions were also given during that time, which effected anyone at home. Small ammounts of food and materials were given to families monthly. There were not enough people to work the factories, so all clothing was mostly hand-made.
This was yet another job took on by females.. Hope this has helped a little: What effects did World War 2 have on the Philippines? Many of them died How did World War 2 effect Poland?
Poland was actually the first country to get invaded and be under complete Nazi control. In some sense it was actually the second Nazi zone behing Germany of course. What are the effects of World War 2 on Canada? Read the very complete sets of answers that are contained in this sites category on "Canada in World War Two". This question, or ones very much like it, have been answered many times before. What were the effects of World War 1 and World War 2?
After the wars France and Britain had taken many casualties, and lost many of their colonies, while the USA got a massive economy from making weapons of war, and the Soviet union gained much territory in Europe. What were the after effects of World War 2 on soldiers? Battle fatigue hurt soldiers psychologically and sociologically.
Many soldiers returned home and the GI Bill was put into place in order to help the soldiers regain a normal life again. What were the short term effects of world war 2? I guess many people lost lives,countries lost a lot of money during the war, and Germany was weaken during the war for a while. I wonder if this reason is correct or not. World war 2 effects?
Over 1 million houses were destroyed or damaged and around 20, people were killed. London was left in absolute devastation and there was lots to repair. It left at least 90, dead in Hiroshima and 60, in Nagasaki some historians estimate these figures as high as , and 80, respectively. It divided Germany into four "zones of occupation" by the victorious Allies.
And who has not heard of the Holocaust, or Hitler, or Nazism? These are all things that will never be forgotten. How was China effected by World War 2? The KMT government eventually lost the mainland and fled to Taiwan.
Also our population has suffered greatly since so many men have sacrificed their lives during surprise attacks. What were the long term and short term effects of world war 2? The long term effects were foreign policy and military build-up. The short term effects were racism towards Japanese and war jobs. What were the after effects of World War 2?
World peace, elimination of the Nazis and the changing of the Japanese culture - the great westernization of the Japanese. Colonial nations; some got their independence and others had less controlling power from the Imperialist Nation that owned them. Europe was changed for decades to come. The United Nations Organization was solidified. Korea and Vietnam War. Women went to work and soon over forty percent of the working population were women in important professions, upper level executive jobs and all the other job positions - including jobs that were once only done by men.
The maps of the world changed as the borders of nations and names of countries were re-designated. New globes had to be made.
Europe was improved with the new economic foundations and new world trade agreements. Tourism to Europe rose. Children were taught not to ever have another world war and why the 2 wars were started and how to prevent another world war while the Cold War Raged.
Children grew to be teens and young adults and revolted over the hypocrisy and wars that should not be fought; namely the Vietnam war. What effect did world war 2 have on children?
I guess it affected them in loads of ways. First mostly all of them were evacuated to the country side, or in some cases to Canada on massive ships that rarely ever made it safely back to England.
They were also affected school- wise, as many of the male teachers had to be pulled up to go into war.
Some of the long-term effects of World War II were the division of Germany into two separate states, the destruction of numerous European and Asian cities, a major realignment of political power into Western and Soviet factions, the creation of the United Nations, a strengthening of corporate power and the beginning of a period of increased prosperity in the United States.
World War II had short-term and long-term effects. One short-term effect was it put an end to the threat posed by the aggressive actions of the governments of Germany, Italy, and Japan. These countries were invading other countries and taking over these lands.
Mar 01, · We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20, individuals in 13 European countries. The long-term effects of World War II were many, and as we discuss them, it is important to remember that the most important effect of the war was the over 50 million people, mostly civilians, who died during it. Long-term effects included the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as the world's two predominant superpowers.
I looked at all of the answers, and the one, most lasting, effect of World War II was not even mentioned! It was the doctrine of “Never Again!”, the doctrine of instant readiness, retaliation, and MAD. Before World War II countries had very small standing armies, and readiness for war was dependent on mobilization. World War IZi changed that. Well, peace could be considered easily one of the shortest-term effects of World War 2. From about on, there has been an almost constant state of conflict, somewhere on the globe.