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Anti-Federalist Papers

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❶As long as the connection subsists between his reason and his self-love, his opinions and his passions will have a reciprocal influence on each other; and the former will be objects to which the latter will attach themselves. The means of revenue, which have been so greatly multiplied by the increase of gold and silver and of the arts of industry, and the science of finance, which is the offspring of modern times, concurring with the habits of nations, have produced an entire revolution in the system of war, and have rendered disciplined armies, distinct from the body of the citizens, the inseparable companions of frequent hostility.

The Federalist Papers

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The federalist papers explained that if a rebellion occurred, it would be better for the president to pardon the rebels and simply end the war rather than insist on punishing every rebel. That way the rebels would put down their arms and go home. That was what happened after the Civil War! The above misstates a few facts. There was an original gathering called in Annapolis to work on improvements to the Articles of Confederation. However, only 5 of the 13 states sent delegates, and the brief conference was a failure.

However, both Alexander Hamilton and James Madison were attendees, and got together afterward to push for a new conference. They managed to convince 12 of the 13 states to send delegates to a new conference, which was held in Philadelphia that summer. It was this conference that hammered out the Constitution as it was pro-offered to the states. Several other states had already approved it, and it was almost certainly going to get the 9 of 13 states required at the point that the New York ratification convention would run - however, as New York was the key state in the Union, it really was required to allow the Constitution to have any force.

The Federalist Papers were an extremely detailed explanation of why the Constitution was needed, and why it was so much better than the existing Articles of Confederation. It was published over a 10 month period, and heavily influenced not just the New York ratification, but several other state's votes, too. Also, the Federalist Papers were NOT in favor of a Bill of Rights in any form, as Hamilton feared such a list of Rights would be taken as an exhaustive list, restricting freedoms to only those listed.

What is the difference of anti-federalists and federalists and papers? Did the authors of the Federalist Papers sign their names? What is the federalist papers about? They are divided into 4 books: The author of the federalist papers wrote them for the purpose of? Who were the authors of the Anti-Federalist Papers? The Anti-Federalist writers have never been identified, but historians have some theories about the men behind some of the pen names: Wrote 24 articles that appeared in the Philadelphia Independent Gazetteer and the Philadelphia Freeman's Journal between October and November The author's identity is unknown, but thought to be Samuel Bryan or a combination of Bryan and Eleazer Oswald, owner of the Independent Gazetteer.

Wrote 18 articles that appeared in the Poughkeepsie Country Journal between November and January The author's identity is speculated to be either Richard Henry Lee, a Virginia delegate to the Congress who was then sitting in New York, or Melancton Smith, or a collaboration between the two.

These essays most closely paralleled those of the Federalists, and were widely reprinted and discussed, making them, perhaps, the most notable of the Anti-Federalist works. Wrote five articles arguing against the need for a stronger central government under a pseudonym borrowed from a 17th-century Dutch Patriot. The author's identity remains unknown. Wrote seven articles that were published in the New York Journal in late ; the last appeared on January 3, Many historians believe the author was New York Governor George Clinton, but note there is no evidence supporting that theory.

The Pennsylvania Minority comprised 21 delegates to the Pennsylvania Convention who opposed ratifying the Constitution.

This single essay was written after the state ratified the Constitution, and was originally printed in the Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser on December 18, The actual author is believed to be Samuel Bryant who was also thought to be Centinel , based on several later letters in which he claimed ownership of the address.

In addition, there were essays written by several different unknown men signed, "A Farmer," "Observer," "A Philanthropist," "Montezuma," "A Federal Republican," and others. Patrick Henry and Melancton Smith also gave public speeches denouncing Federalism. What pen names did the authors of the Anti-Federalist Papers write under? The best known pen names for the Anti-Federalist letters were: In addition, there were essay written by several different unknown men signed, "A Farmer," "Observer," "A Philanthropist," "Montezuma," "A Federal Republican," and others.

Who are the two Authors of 'The Federalists Papers'? James Madison wrote most of the papers known as "The Federalist Papers. Which of the writers of the Federalist Papers was an Anti-Federalist? Article 51 of the federalist papers? There is no "Article 51" of the Federalist Papers. There is Federalist 51, which was written by James Madison, and most famously discusses the "checks and balances" of our government.

Is George Washington an author of the federalist papers? Were the authors of the Federalist Papers very much against a strong central government? The Ant-Federalists, which included people like Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry, were opposed to the central government having too much control.

Were the authors of the Federalist Papers in favor of a strong federal government? Most of the first ten papers are devoted to explaining the security, trade and other benefits of forming a republic, as opposed to remaining sovereign states.

Did the federalist papers succeed in their goals? Yes and No; Yes for the purpose that they convinced the general public of the intent behind the constitution and preserved that intent for history. No, as that intent has been deviated from over the years. What was the Articles of Confederation and the Federalist Papers? The Articles of Confederation were the first documents that outlined the government of the 13 new states after the Revolutionary War. They united the states, and divided and limited the power, which was the point.

The problem was, it made the government weak, so the economy collapsed. Who is Brutus in the Federalist Papers? Although not proven, most historians believe the real author was Robert Yates, a New York judge and political ally of New York Governor George Clinton, who is also thought to be one of the Anti-Federalist writers Cato. There is less certainty about "Cato's" identity. Much of "Brutus'" writing addressed legal matters and the proposed federal judiciary.

Who was the principal author of the federalist papers? All of the essays they wrote were later put together and called the "Federalist Papers". I know James Madison played a major role in drafting and ratifying the Constitution, which was the main subject of the Federalist Papers, but I don't know if the Papers had a principal author.

Who wrote The Federalist Papers and why? The essays originally appeared in three New York newspapers, the Independent Journal , the New York Packet , and the Daily Advertiser , in and and were intended to convince the States particularly New York to ratify the new Constitution in order to replace the old government organized under the Articles of Confederation. In total, the Federalist Papers consist of 85 essays outlining how the proposed Republican form of government would operate and why it was the best choice for the individual States and for the United States of America as a whole.

The anti-Federalist papers are a selection of the written arguments against the US Constitution by those known to posterity as the anti-Federalists. As with the Federalist papers, these essays were originally published in newspapers. The most widely known are "a series of sixteen essays published in the New York Journal from October, , through April, , during the same period.

The anti-Federalist was appearing in New York newspapers, under the pseudonym 'Brutus'. The Anti-Federalist papers were written over a number of years and by a variety of authors who utilized pen names to remain anonymous, and debates over authorship continue to this day. Unlike the authors of The Federalist Papers , a group of three men working closely together, the authors of the anti-Federalist papers were not engaged in an organized project.

Thus, in contrast to the pro-Constitution advocates, there was no one book or collection of anti-Federalist Papers at the time. The essays were the product of a vast number of authors, working individually rather than as a group. Works by Patrick Henry and a variety of others are often included as well.

Until the midth century, there was no united series of anti-Federalist papers. The first major collection was compiled by Morton Borden, a professor at Columbia University, in He "collected 85 of the most significant papers and arranged them in an order closely resembling that of the 85 Federalist Papers. At seven volumes and including many pamphlets and other materials not previously published in a collection, this work is considered, by many, to be the authoritative compendium on the publications.

Cooke for his edition of The Federalist ; this edition used the newspaper texts for essay numbers 1—76 and the McLean edition for essay numbers 77— The authorship of seventy-three of The Federalist essays is fairly certain. Twelve of these essays are disputed over by some scholars, though the modern consensus is that Madison wrote essays Nos. The first open designation of which essay belonged to whom was provided by Hamilton who, in the days before his ultimately fatal gun duel with Aaron Burr , provided his lawyer with a list detailing the author of each number.

This list credited Hamilton with a full sixty-three of the essays three of those being jointly written with Madison , almost three-quarters of the whole, and was used as the basis for an printing that was the first to make specific attribution for the essays.

Madison did not immediately dispute Hamilton's list, but provided his own list for the Gideon edition of The Federalist. Madison claimed twenty-nine numbers for himself, and he suggested that the difference between the two lists was "owing doubtless to the hurry in which [Hamilton's] memorandum was made out. Statistical analysis has been undertaken on several occasions to try to ascertain the authorship question based on word frequencies and writing styles.

Nearly all of the statistical studies show that the disputed papers were written by Madison, although a computer science study theorizes the papers were a collaborative effort.

The Federalist Papers were written to support the ratification of the Constitution, specifically in New York. Whether they succeeded in this mission is questionable.

Separate ratification proceedings took place in each state, and the essays were not reliably reprinted outside of New York; furthermore, by the time the series was well underway, a number of important states had already ratified it, for instance Pennsylvania on December New York held out until July 26; certainly The Federalist was more important there than anywhere else, but Furtwangler argues that it "could hardly rival other major forces in the ratification contests"—specifically, these forces included the personal influence of well-known Federalists, for instance Hamilton and Jay, and Anti-Federalists, including Governor George Clinton.

In light of that, Furtwangler observes, "New York's refusal would make that state an odd outsider. Only 19 Federalists were elected to New York's ratification convention, compared to the Anti-Federalists' 46 delegates.

While New York did indeed ratify the Constitution on July 26, the lack of public support for pro-Constitution Federalists has led historian John Kaminski to suggest that the impact of The Federalist on New York citizens was "negligible". As for Virginia, which only ratified the Constitution at its convention on June 25, Hamilton writes in a letter to Madison that the collected edition of The Federalist had been sent to Virginia; Furtwangler presumes that it was to act as a "debater's handbook for the convention there," though he claims that this indirect influence would be a "dubious distinction.

Furtwangler notes that as the series grew, this plan was somewhat changed. The fourth topic expanded into detailed coverage of the individual articles of the Constitution and the institutions it mandated, while the two last topics were merely touched on in the last essay. The papers can be broken down by author as well as by topic.

At the start of the series, all three authors were contributing; the first twenty papers are broken down as eleven by Hamilton, five by Madison and four by Jay. The rest of the series, however, is dominated by three long segments by a single writer: The Federalist Papers specifically Federalist No.

The idea of adding a Bill of Rights to the Constitution was originally controversial because the Constitution, as written, did not specifically enumerate or protect the rights of the people, rather it listed the powers of the government and left all that remained to the states and the people. Alexander Hamilton , the author of Federalist No. However, Hamilton's opposition to a Bill of Rights was far from universal. Robert Yates , writing under the pseudonym Brutus , articulated this view point in the so-called Anti-Federalist No.

References in The Federalist and in the ratification debates warn of demagogues of the variety who through divisive appeals would aim at tyranny. The Federalist begins and ends with this issue.

Federal judges, when interpreting the Constitution, frequently use The Federalist Papers as a contemporary account of the intentions of the framers and ratifiers. Davidowitz to the validity of ex post facto laws in the decision Calder v. Bull , apparently the first decision to mention The Federalist. The amount of deference that should be given to The Federalist Papers in constitutional interpretation has always been somewhat controversial.

Maryland , that "the opinions expressed by the authors of that work have been justly supposed to be entitled to great respect in expounding the Constitution. No tribute can be paid to them which exceeds their merit; but in applying their opinions to the cases which may arise in the progress of our government, a right to judge of their correctness must be retained. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Federalist Papers. For the website, see The Federalist website.

For other uses, see Federalist disambiguation. Series of 85 essays arguing in favor of the ratification of the US Constitution.

Title page of the first collection of The Federalist

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The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pseudonym "Publius" to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution.

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In total, the Federalist Papers consist of 85 essays outlining how this new government would operate and why this type of government was the best choice for the United States of America. All of the essays were signed " PUBLIUS " and the actual authors of some are under dispute, but the general consensus is that Alexander Hamilton wrote 52, James Madison wrote 28, and John Jay contributed the remaining five.

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The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 essays arguing in support of the United States Constitution. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay were the authors behind the pieces, and the three men wrote collectively under the name of Publius. This web-friendly presentation of the original text of the Federalist Papers (also known as The Federalist) was obtained from the e-text archives of Project Gutenberg. For more information, see About the Federalist Papers. No. Title. Author. Publication. Author: Alexander Hamilton.

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The Federalist Papers consist of eighty-five letters written to newspapers in the late s to urge ratification of the U.S. Constitution. With the Constitution needing approval from nine of. the federalist papers The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles or essays advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution. Seventy-seven of the essays were published serially in The Independent Journal and The New York Packet between October and August